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Vision Public Health Contribution Yearwise Publications Subjectwise Publications

शोध प्रकाशन सार


A. Malaria & Dengue
B. Japanese Encephalitis
C. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
D. Tuberculosis
E. Urolithiasis
F. Hypertension
G. Nutrition
H. Opium Addiction
I. Occupational Health
J. Public Health
K. Bio-Statistics

A. Malaria & Dengue
Top to List
A-1 Singh, Karam V, Joshi, V and Bansal, SK. Studies on mosquito vector species in indoor habitats of desert and non-desert regions of Rajasthan. J. Commun. Dis., 1991, 23: 263-69.
Abstract
A-2 Singh, Karam V and Tyagi, BK. A brief report on mite infestation of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the desert villages of Rajasthan. J. ISHEER, 1991, 1: 73-75.
Abstract
A-3 Tyagi, BK and Singh, Karam V. Anopheline mosquitoes of Sri Ganganagar district (Rajasthan) transmitting malrial parasite. J. Appl. Zool. Res., 1991, 2: 85-91.
Abstract
A-4 Tyagi, BK, Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Intraspecific morphological variations in two ecotypes of Anopheles stephensi Liston in north-western Rajasthan (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol., 1991, 9: 85-89.
Abstract
A-5 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Prevalence and seasonal distribution of Anopheline fauna in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). Indian J. Malariol., 1993, 30: 119-25.
Abstract
A-6 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Feeding behaviour of Anopheles stephensi Liston in arid conditions. Indian J. Parasitol., 1994, 18: 221-22.
Abstract
A-7 Tyagi, BK, Singh, Karam V, Bansal, SK and Yadav, SP. Malaria epidemic in some desert villages of North West Rajasthan. J. App. Zool. Res., 1994, 5: 152 55.
Abstract
A-8 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Comparative susceptibility of two culicine vectors of DF/DHF and Lymphatic filariasis to insecticides in district Bikaner. Proc. Intl., Symp., Vect. Vector- borne Dis., 1995, 2: 86-90.
Abstract
A-9 Tyagi, BK, Chaudhary, RC and Yadav, SP. Epidemic malaria in Thar Desert, India. The Lencet, 1995, 344.
Abstract
A-10 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Insecticide susceptibility status of some anopheline mosquitoes in district Bikaner, Rajasthan. Indian J. Malariol., 1996, 33: 1-6.
Abstract
A-11 Joshi. V, Dixit, AK and Singhi, M. Impact of water temperature on the development period of immatures of Aedes aegypti from a dengue affected area of Western Rajasthan, India, Oikoassay, 1996, 13: 1-2.
Abstract
A-12 Joshi, V, Mathur, ML, Dixit, AK and Singhi, M. Entomological studies in a dengue endemic area, Jalore, Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 104: 161-65.
Abstract
A-13 Joshi, V, Singhi, M and Chaudhary, RC. Transovarial transmission of dengue 3 virus by Aedes aegypti. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1996, 90: 643-44.
Abstract
A-14 Singh,  Karam V and Bansal, SK. Current  status  of Anopheles stephensi  response to various  insecticides  in  some areas  of  Thar desert.  Indian J.  Med.  Res., 1996, 103:  299-03.
Abstract
A-15 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Malaria and Vector Control - Awareness of a Rural Community in the Thar Desert following an Epidemic. WHO Regional Health Forum, 1996, 1: 41-45.
Abstract
A-16 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Malariological and sociological significance of tanka and beri in the Thar Desert, Western Rajasthan, India. J. Arid Environments, 1996, 33: 497-01.
Abstract
A-17 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Co-relation of Irrigation and Flood Water Management with malaria in the Thar Desert. WHO Regional Health Forum, 1997, 2: 5-11.
Abstract
A-18 Yadav, SP, Tyagi, BK and Ramnath, T. Knowledge attitude and practice towards malaria in rural community of the epidemic prone Thar desert, North-Western, India. J. Commun. Dis., 1999, 31: 127 36.
Abstract
A-19 Tyagi, BK, Yadav, SP, Sachdev, R, and Dam, PK. Malaria outbreak in the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana Command Area in Jaisalmer district, Thar Desert, India. J. Commun. Dis., 2000, 33: 88-95.
Abstract
A-20 Joshi, V and Sharma, RC. Impact of vertically-transmitted dengue virus viability of eggs of virus-inoculated Aedes aegypti. Dengue Bulletin, 2001, 25: 103-06
Abstract
A-21 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Bionomics of malaria vectors in two physiographically different areas of the epidemic prone Thar desert, North-western Rajasthan. J. Arid Environments, 2001, 47: 161-72.
Abstract
A-22 Joshi, V, Mourya, DT and Sharma, RC. Persistence of Dengue-3 virus through transovarial transmission passage in successive generations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2002, 67: 158-61.
Abstract
A-23 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti to DDT and Dieldrin in desert and non-desert parts of Rajasthan. J. Environ. Biol., 2003, 24: 113-16.
Abstract
A-24 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Larvicidal properties of a perennial herb Solanum xanthocarpum against vectors of malaria and dengue/DHF. Current Science, 2003, 84: 749- 51.
Abstract
A-25 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Efficacy of different organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston. J. Environ. Biol., 2004, 25: 485-88.
Abstract
A-26 Singhi, Manju, Joshi, V, Sharma, RC and Sharma, Keerti. Ovipositioning behaviour of Aedes aegypti in different concentrations of latex of Calotropis procera: Studies on Refrectory behaviour and relative preference trend across gonotrophic cycles. Dengue Bulletin, 2004, 28: 184-88.
Abstract
A-27 Joshi, V, Sharma, RC, Singhi, M, Singh, H, Sharma, K, Sharma, Y and Adha, S. Entomological studies on malaria in irrigated and non irrigated areas of Thar desert, Rajasthan, India. J. Vect. Borne Dis., 2005, 42: 25-29.
Abstract
A-28 Singhi, M, Joshi, V, Sharma, RC, Adha, S and Dixit, AK. Larvicidal efficacy of Calotropis procera against vectors of dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis in Arid Zone of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2005, 44: 185-90.
Abstract
A-29 Yadav, SP, Sharma, RC and Joshi, V. Study of social determinants of malaria in desert parts of Rajasthan, India. J. Vect. Borne Dis., 2005, 42: 141-46.
Abstract
A-30 Bansal, S K and Singh, Karam V. Laboratory evaluation for comparative insecticidal activity of some synthetic pyrethroids against vector mosquitoes in arid region. J. Environ. Biol., 2006, 27: 251-55.
Abstract
A-31 Joshi, Vinod, Sharma, RC, Adha, Sandeep, Sharma, Keerti, Singh, Himmat, Purohit, Anil and Singhi, Manju. Importance of Socio-economic status and tree holes in distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicide) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. J. Med. Entomol., 2006, 43: 330-36.
Abstract
A-32 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Relative susceptibility of some common mosquito vector larvae to synthetic insecticidal compounds in north western Rajasthan. J. Environ. Biol., 2006. (In Press)
Abstract
Abstracts
Top to List
A-1 Singh, Karam V, Joshi, V and Bansal, SK. Studies on mosquito vector species in indoor habitats of desert and non-desert regions of Rajasthan. J. Commun. Dis., 1991, 23: 263-69.
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The survey carried-out in 2 desert (Jodlhpur & Bikaner) and 1 non-desert (Jaipur) districts of Rajasthan revealed that medically important mosquitoes comprised of 3 genera and 11 mosquito species. Culex pseudovishnui, C. malayi and Anopheles culicifacies were found in desert districts only and An. fluviatilis, C. gelidus and Aedes vittatus in non-desert Jaipur district only. Except An. subpictus , all the species in desert region had peak density in RH range of 21-60 per cent while in non-desert area most of the species had highest density in RH range of 61-80 per cent. No species in non-desert area occurred at temperature more than 40 C.
A-2 Singh, Karam V and Tyagi, BK. A brief report on mite infestation of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the desert villages of Rajasthan. J. ISHEER, 1991, 1: 73-75.
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Mite (Arrenurus sp.) infestation was observed only in An. stephensi among the anophelines encountered in north-western areas of Rajasthan. Although, the infestation was observed on abdomen, thorax and the undersides of the wing-bases, the intensity of parasitization was higher in the abdominal region. Most of the mites, both larval and adult forms, were noticed attached to the lateral aspects of the abdomen. Freshly fed mosquito females were found with more mites.
A-3 Tyagi, BK and Singh, Karam V. Anopheline mosquitoes of Sri Ganganagar district (Rajasthan) transmitting malrial parasite. J. Appl. Zool. Res., 1991, 2: 85-91.
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Seven anophelines were recorded from Sri Ganganagar district, Rajasthan, Anopheles subpictus (56.09%) was most dominant, followed by A. culicifacies (27.43%), A. stephensi (14.4%), A. vagus (1.72%), A. annularis (0.18%), A. splendidus (0.09%) and A. nigerrimus (0.09%). A. culicifacies was incriminated by the oocyst stage in the gut. Amongst the known (pmh density 22) showed a maximum increase during the monsoon and post-monsoon months. While these two species bred profusely in the open irrigation channels and the rainfed ground breeding sources characteristically present in the villages of Sangaria PHC. A. stephensi bred preferably in the Tanka of the desert villages of the Pilibanga PHC, as the predominant species amongst all anophelines collected.
A-4 Tyagi, BK, Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Intraspecific morphological variations in two ecotypes of Anopheles stephensi Liston on north-western Rajasthan (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol., 1991, 9: 85-89.
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Morphological variations were studied in An. stephensi Liston in two physiographically different areas in north-western Rajasthan. Differences in total body length, wings palpi and the speckling of palpi and legs were observed.
A-5 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Prevalence and seasonal distribution of Anopheline fauna in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). Indian J. Malariol., 1993, 30: 119-25.
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A survey was carried out during 1989-91 to study the prevalence and distribution of Anopheline mosquitoes in 12 villages located in all the 4 tehsils of Bikaner district. Six species, viz. Anopheles subpictus (34.7%0, An. stephensi (33.3%), An. culicifacies (18.0%), An. annularis (12.1%), An. pulcherrimus (1.1%) and An. barbirostris (0.8%) were collected. An. stephensi was present throughout the year and other species were present during the monsoon and post-monsoon periods. During the peak winter period (Dec. Jan.) only An. stephensi was present in low density. An. culicifacies made its appearance only during the spring season and continued up to the middle of November. An. subpictus, An. pulcherrimus, An. barbirostris and An. annularis were found only during the monsoon and post-monsoon periods. An. subpictus was the most abundant species during the monsoon, and so was An. stephensi during the spring season in indoor habitats
A-6 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Feeding behaviour of Anopheles stephensi Liston in arid conditions. Indian J. Parasitol., 1994, 18: 221-22.
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In some of the desert villages, freshly fed individuals of An. stephensi were collected during dusk hours in relatively higher proportions, particularly in winter and summer months, which may be attributed to the situations created due to the extreme conditions of temperatures during these months. The behavioural change in An. stephensi, though was not found statistically significant but suggests detailed investigations on the feeding behaviour and host preference of this species in the area.
A-7 Tyagi, BK, Singh, Karam V, Bansal, SK and Yadav, SP. Malaria epidemic in some desert villages of North West Rajasthan. J. App. Zool. Res., 1994, 5: 152 55.
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Entomological and parasitological investigations were carried out in two villages of Indira Gandhi canal command area i.e. Madasar and Awai( PHC Nachna, Dist. Jaisalmer) and two desert villages, i.e. Kanasar and Khetusar ( PHU Baap, Dist. Jodhpur), during and after a malaria epidemic between November 1992 and January, 1993. Positivity rate in the Mass Blood Survey in the IG canal villages was 85.2% compared to 26.3% in the desert villages. The Plasmodium falciparum rate, along with higher gametocyte rate only in IG canal villages, ranged between 72.7% and 92.8% in the study villages, indicating the severity of the problem. Among the eight anopheline species collected, the known vector An. stephensi and An. culicifacies occur in high densities posing a threat of sustained malaria transmission. Vector species, An. stephensi, appeared totally susceptible to malathion 5% but only partially susceptible (50%) to DDT 4%.
A-8 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Comparative susceptibility of two culicine vectors of DF/DHF and Lymphatic filariasis to insecticides in district Bikaner. Proc. Intl. Symp. Vect. Vector- borne Dis., 1995, 2: 86-90.
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Insecticide susceptibility experiments were conducted on the adults of two species of mosquito vectors of DF/DHF and lymphatic filariasis viz. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively, from district Bikaner (Rajasthan) during 1992-93 against diagnostic doses of DDT, Dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin at different time intervals. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found resistant to all the insecticides tested except permethrin. Ae. Aegypti, however, was susceptible to malathion and permethrin, while with DDT, dieldrin, fenitrothion and propoxur, an incipient resistance was indicated. On comparison Cx. quinquefasciatus was found much more resistant as compared to Ae. aegypti.
A-9 Tyagi, BK, Chaudhary, RC and Yadav, SP. Epidemic malaria in Thar Desert, India. The Lencet, 1995, 344.
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North-west Indias Thar desert today is not as it is shown in atlases. The construction of three major canal systems- namely, the Gang canal (1927), the Bhakra Sirhind feeder canal (1954), and the Indira Gandhi canal (1957) has had a bearing on malaria epidemics in the region. These canals together irrigate about 14000 km2. Furthermore, large areas on the course of the canals, most notably the Indira Gandhi with its 9000 km of channels, are perennially inundated by seepage water from the irrigation channels. These inputs have raised the water table, altered the texture, water-holding capacity, and salinity of the soil, and have affected crop patterns. This complex, the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana (IGNP), is one of the worlds largest desert irrigation systems. In the past decade or so the Thar desert region has experienced four major epidemics- in 1983 (Ganganagar), 1990 (Barmer, Jodhpur, Pali), 1992-93 (Bikaner), Jodhpur, Jaisalmer), and 1994 (Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur). In IGNP command area A. stephnsi and A. culicifacies thrive abundantly for most of the year and transmit malaria irrespective of high rainfall. By contrast A. culicifacies in Barmer is largely dependent on the rainwater. In the IGNP command area a malaria epidemic can occur even without heavy rain (as in 1992-93) whereas in the non-IGNP area heavy rains would predictably be followed by an outbreak. An impact from ENSO is thus demonstrable in only a part of the Thar desert.
A-10 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Insecticide susceptibility status of some anopheline mosquitoes in district Bikaner, Rajasthan. Indian J. Malariol., 1996, 33: 1-6.
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Insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on the adults of four anopheline species namely, Anopheles annularis, An. culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi , An. subpictus against the diagnostic doses of six insecticides, viz. DDT (4.0%), dieldrin (0.4%), malathion (5.0%), fenitrothion (1.0%), propoxur (0.1%) and permethrin (0.25%) in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). A time dependent effect has been observed with each insecticide. All the four species were found resistant to DDT and dieldrin and susceptible to fenitrothion and permethrin. An. culicifacies and An. subpictus showed susceptibility to malathion, while further verification for the two species was required. However, with propoxur An. annularis showed resistance, whereas for other three species further studies are required. DDT and dieldrin, the two organochlorines, were found least effective as compared to organophosphates and carbamates.
A-11 Joshi. V, Dixit, AK and Singhi, M. Impact of water temperature on the development period of immatures of Aedes aegypti from a dengue affected area of Western Rajasthan, India, Oikoassay, 1996, 13: 1-2.
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In-vitro studies to observe impact of water temperature on development period immatures of Aedes aegypti into adults have been made. Water temperature of 12-14 0C was observed to prolong the transformation of larvae and pupae into their adults forms. Temperature about 16 0C and up to 28 0C was found to favour the process of development of immatures into adults and above 30 0C observed to result into mortality of immatures. Impact of varying levels of water temperature on immatures was subjected to statistical analysis and found significant. Depending upon local climatic condition the month in which favourable water temperature is reached, would exhibit the seasonal peak of population of adult Aedes aegypti and subsequently onset of dengue fever in the affected.
A-12 Joshi, V, Mathur, ML, Dixit, AK and Singhi, M. Entomological studies in a dengue endemic area, Jalore, Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 104: 161-65.
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Entomological studies on prevalence of adult and immatures of Aedes aegypti along with associated ecological factors have been conducted in a dengue endemic area of Jalore, Rajasthan from 1992 to 1993. Studies in two areas: reportedly affected and unaffected revealed more adults and higher breeding indices in the affected area as compared to the unaffected one. Mosquitoes harbouring dengue antigen were found only in the affected locality. Presence of dengue angtigen in field caught mosquitoes in the affected locality was observed mainly during the months of January to April in both the years. Statistical analysis of data has shown a correlation to be significant between adult house index and breeding index in the affected area while this association was found insignificant in the unaffected locality. Water storage practices of the population due to irregular water supply in the affected area are the possible cause for a higher vector concentration in the locality. Seasonality of occurrence of dengue fever patients in a particular period of the year is associated with a relatively higher vector density and the presence of infected mosquitoes, which is due to favourable temperature, relative humidity, water temperature and pH.
A-13 Joshi, V, Singhi, M and Chaudhary, RC. Transovarial transmission of dengue 3 virus by Aedes aegypti. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1996, 90: 643-44.
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Dengue fever associated with Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an important public health problem in the countries of south-east Asia and the Western pacific (WHO, 1975). Although dengue associated with DHF has emerged in almost all the part of India (Banerjee, 1994) persistant of the virus in nature and in susceptible human host could not be substantiated in the Indian subcontinent by Ilkal et al. (1991), who were unable to demonstrate the transovarial transmission of dengue virus in mosquitoes in nature. In Jalore district of the arid western Rajasthan region, India, epidemic dengue as appeared twice, the first epidemic being reported in 1985. The virus strain dengue 3 has been reported to be active in the region (Chouhan et al. 1991).
A-14 Singh,  Karam V and Bansal, SK. Current  status  of Anopheles stephensi  response to various  insecticides  in  some areas  of  Thar desert.  Indian  J.  Med.  Res., 1996, 103:  299-03.
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Investigations on the current response of An. stephensi to six insecticides (DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur & permethrin), were carried-out in 3 desert districts (Barmer, Jodhpur & Pali). The species was found resistant to DDT and dieldrin, partial resistant to malathion and susceptible to fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin. Dieldrin and malathion resistance was detected for the first time. Chi-square and regression tests revealed the homogeneity and linear trend respectively in the response of An. stephensi to these insecticides.
A-15 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Malaria and Vector Control - Awareness of a Rural Community in the Thar Desert following an Epidemic. WHO Regional Health Forum, 1996, 1: 41-45.
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Malaria epidemic struck some villages in the Thar desert during late 1992 and claimed a number of lives. The village communities were completely taken aback by the ravages of the outbreak since this desert population had not previously been exposed to malaria epidemics. Various factors cumulatively led to the disaster but extensive changes in the physiographic of the Thar desert due to the introduction of three major canal systems the Gange canal (1927), the Bhakra-Sirhind feeder canal (1955) and the Indira Gandhi canal (1961) were mainly responsible. Lack of understanding about malaria by the village communities in the desert region makes the implementation of measures to control its transmission very difficult; Securing the participation of the people of the desert is, therefore considered to be o paramount importance.
A-16 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Malariological and sociological significance of tanka and beri in the Thar Desert, Western Rajasthan, India. J. Arid Environments, 1996, 33: 497-01.
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Both tanka and beri, the well-like structures made for storing drinking water fetched from distant places or superficially charged from the runoff water of the monsoon rains, are considered integral components of rural communities in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan State in north-western India. An. stephensi, the confirmed malaria vector in desert regions, breeds in these structures predominantly.
A-17 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Co-relation of Irrigation and Flood Water Management with malaria in the Thar Desert. WHO Regional Health Forum, 1997, 2: 5-11.
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The Thar desert in north-western India has experienced an unprecedented spate of malaria epidemics since the mid-1980s. The sudden onslaught of falciparum-dominated malaria in the low-immune desert population inflicted unfathomable misery and took an untimely toll of precious human life, leaving behind a trail of epidemics. While, on the one hand, a metoorological theory has been put forth to link the epidemics with the EI Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) bring heavy and aerratic monsoon, on the other hand, the inunndative vetorism theory has also been offered to correlate the onset of the outbreaks of malaria with the sudden and prodigious increase in the vectors relative densities triggered by the extensive breeding grounds formed by canal irrigation and surplus flood waters in the Thar desert.
A-18 Yadav, SP, Tyagi, BK and Ramnath, T. Knowledge attitude and practice towards malaria in rural community of the epidemic prone Thar desert, North-Western, India. J. Commun. Dis., 1999, 31: 12736.
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In order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the rural Thar Desert population about malaria and its vectors, a total of 345 heads of households, including housewives suffering with malaria were surveyed randomly, anlong with the same number of healthy control subjects. in four villages of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan. north-western India. Results showed that in the traditionally hypo endemic Thar Desert with low levels of immunity against malaria particularly Plasmodium falciparum, a large segment of rural people were equally less aware about the dangers of the disease. About three-fourths of the studied population did not quite comprehend the purpose of the five decade-old National Anti Malaria Programme, while nearly 50% respondents were reluctant to accept the programme, while nearly 50% respondents were reluctant to accept the programme lacking the component of community participation buy directly targetting on the control of the disease. Consequently, about 50% malaria patients and 60% healthy subjects lacked in taking initiative to resort to any anti-mosquito or anti-marial measure to protect themselves, although 27% malaria patients and 2.9% healthy subjects acknowledge correct causes of malaria. This study, being the first of its kind in a desert community currently facing emergence of P.falciparum-dominated malaria outbreaks, is a testimony to the hitheroto prevalent deep gaps in knowledge about the disease, and its results warrant sincere efforts to link up the malaria control programme with community participation for protection against this courage in future.
A-19 Tyagi, BK, Yadav, SP, Sachdev, R, and Dam, PK. Malaria outbreak in the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana Command Area in Jaisalmer district, Thar Desert, India. J. Commun. Dis., 2000, 33: 88-95.
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A focal outbreak of malaria occurred in the villages situated close to the main Indira Gandhi canal near Ramgarh in Jaisalmer district, western Rajasthan. Stagnation of water over a months period in the main canal as well as long standing rain water in the form of expansive lakes near these villages formed vast breeding grounds for the vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, along with A. stephensi already breeding in the tanka and beri in the epidemic hit villages. Rapid mass blood surveys along with other entomological and parasitological investigations were conduced in four of the ten affected villages, viz., Seuva, Raghwa, Raimala and Sadhna. A total of 992 specimens belonging to four vector species were sampled, namely, A. Stephensi (47.4%), A. Culicifacies (41.0%),. A subpictus (11.2%) and A. annularis (0.4%). Epidemiologically, about one-fourth of the examined persons were positive (SPR 25.5%), although Plasmodium falciparum dominated the parasitaemia (49.5%). Available data are indicative of changed malariological scenario in the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojna command area, where epidemics are regular features every year.
A-20 Joshi, V and Sharma, RC. Impact of vertically-transmitted dengue virus viability of eggs of virus-inoculated Aedes aegypti. Dengue Bulletin, 2001, 25: 103-06
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Transovarial transmission (TOT) is known to occur in Aedes aegypti. This relationship carries tremendous epidemiological significance. The progeny of virus-inoculated Aedes aegypti were followed for seven generations to obseve the impact of the virus on the viability of eggs and their rearing upto the adult stage. Dengue virus was found to exert an adverse effect on the viability of the eggs of the vertically-infected female mosquitoes and their larval and pupal stages upto adults when compared with the control population. While TOT ranged from15.5% to 67.5% of the total mosquito populations in seven experimental generations, the corresponding adverse effect of the virus on eggs failing to hatch and grow in to adults ranged from 30.0% to 68.1%.
A-21 Tyagi, BK and Yadav, SP. Bionomics of malaria vectors in two physiographically different areas of the epidemic prone Thar desert, North-western Rajasthan. J. Arid Environments, 2001, 47: 161-72.
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Entomological and parasitological investigations were carried out on malaria vectors and disease prevalence in two sets of village, the highly irrigated Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana (IGNP) command-area villages (Madassar and Awai), and the truly desertic non-command (un-irrigated) area villages (Kanasar and Khetusar), located in different ecological conditions in the Thar Desert, north-western Rajasthan (India). Malaria prevalence, as determined through sustained fever surveyes, was higher in the IGNP villages with a slide positivity rate(32%) marginally more than that of the un-irrigated villages(25.5%), but with a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum(76.6%) in the former villages as compared to the latter (16.6%). Anopheles stephensi, A. culcifacies and A. subpidtus were amongst the eight anopheline species collected from all the four villages which were found positive for malarial parasites. Anopheles stephensi was the predominant species in the unirrigated villages (>95%), although in the irrigated villages A. culcifacies was also found. The major ecological changes associated with irrigation in the Thar Desert are understood to be playing an important role in accentuating the transmission of malaria by improving vector breeding conditins and survival in an othervise hostile arid environment.
A-22 Joshi, V, Mourya, DT and Sharma, RC. Persistence of Dengue-3 virus through transovarial transmission passage in successive generations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2002, 67: 158-61.
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Progeny of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected intrathoracically with dengue-3 virus was reared to subsequent generations. In each generation, bloods fed females were confined individually & the eggs obtained from the transovarially infected female were pooled. The seventh generation obtained from the infected parental mosquitoes showed that virus could persist in mosquitoes in successive generations through transovarial passage. The rate of vertical transmission initially increased in few generations (F1-F2), but in subsequent generations it was found to be steady. Parental mosquitoes inoculated with virus showed higher mortality then the diluent-inoculated controls. There was an increase in the larval duration of transovarially infected batches at the seventh generation when compared with uninfected control mosquitoes. The fecundity and fertility of the transovarially infected batches of mosquitoes was also affected when compared with the controls. This is the first report demonstrating persistence of dengue virus in the successive generations of mosquitoes infected through vertical transmission. These observations which have great epidemiological importance, suggest that vector mosquitoes may play an important role in the maintenance of virus in nature and the mosquitoes may act as a reservoir of these viruses.
A-23 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti to DDT and Dieldrin in desert and non-desert parts of Rajasthan. J. Environ, Biol., 2003, 24: 113-16.
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Seasonal prevalence and insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out on the adults of Aedes aegypti , the vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF), in three desert ( Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur) and three non-desert ( Alwar, Ajmer and Jaipur) districts of Rajasthan. Among the three species viz. Ae. aegypti, Ae. vittatus and Ae. W-albus encountered during the survey the former was the most prevalent species. Studies were carried out both in rural and urban areas against different concentrations of two organochlorines (DDT and Dieldrin). In rural areas resistance has been observed with DDT and dieldrin both in desert and non-desert parts while an intermediate resistance has been observed in the urban areas with both the insecticides which required further verification. Resistance was more pronounced in rural areas as compared to urban areas. LC50 along with regression equation and Chi-square values have been determined for both the insecticides.
A-24 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Larvicidal properties of a perennial herb Solanum xanthocarpum against vectors of malaria and dengue/DHF. Current Science, 2003, 84: 749- 51.
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The studies envisaged larvicidal property in fruit and root extracts of S. xanthocarpum against An. culicifacies, An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. The fruit extract was 12.5, 9.7 and 16.4 times more toxic than root extract to An. culicifacies, An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti at LC90 level respectively. The larvicidal properties of this plant can be well utilized while planning alternate vector control strategies based on integrated vector control measures through community participation.
A-25 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Efficacy of different organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides to the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston. J. Environ. Biol., 2004, 25: 485-88.
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Evaluation of the potency of four organophosphate (OP) (Malathion, Fenthion, Fenitrothion and Temephos) and two synthetic pyrethroid (SP) compounds (Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin) was carried out against larvae of Anopheles stephensi, the major malaria vector in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). Different concentrations supplies by WHO were used for determining the percent mortalities. LC50 values as calculated by probit analysis were 1.2740, 0.0600, 0.0405, 0.0046, 0.0019 and 0.0016 mg/l respectively for the above six insecticides. Both SP compounds were found more toxic followed by temephos among the OP compounds. Malathion was found the least toxic while fenthion and fenitrothion were in between these two extremes.
A-26 Singhi, Manju, Joshi, V, Sharma, RC and Sharma, Keerti. Ovipositioning behaviour of Aedes aegypti in different concentrations of latex of Calotropis procera: Studies on Refrectory behaviour and relative preference trend across gonotrophic cycles. Dengue Bulletin, 2004, 28: 184-88.
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Dengue fever associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever is gaining endemically in India. Due to lack of any chemotherapy against this arboviral infection, the control of the disease depends largely on preventive measures against Aedes mosquito vectors. A wild shrub, Calotropis procera, commonly growing in the desert areas of Rajasthan has shown a remarkable effect as larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, different water concentrations of this biocide have also brought forward very important observations on the ovipositioning behaviour of Aedes aegypti. At 0.7% concentrations of latex, the gravid female mosquitoes avoided the ovipositioning and this behaviour continued till three gonotrophic cycles. However, at lower concentrations (0.2% and 0.1%) of the larvicidal latex, the refractory behaviour of ovipositioning could not be retained upto the third gonotrophic cycle. The concentration of latex such as 0.7% and 0.2% were observed as ovicidal also and this effect continued across all the gonotrophic cycles. The behavioural observations reported in the present study may serve as significant information on choosing bio-larvicide for vector control against dengue.
A-27 Joshi, V, Sharma, RC, Singhi, M, Singh, H, Sharma, K, Sharma, Y and Adha, S. Entomological studies on malaria in irrigated and non irrigated areas of Thar desert, Rajasthan, India. J. Vect. Borne Dis., 2005, 42: 25-29.
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Background and Objectives: Malaria is a major health problem in western Rajasthan yet its vector fauna and transmission dynamics thereof is not understood properly. The present investigations report complete profile of qualitative and quantitative aspects of anopheline species occurring in different settings of desert ecosystem. Methods: Area with irrigation through canal for more then 20 years (setting I), area with irrigation through canal for 10 years (setting II) and area without any irrigation (setting III) have been selected for studies. Species identification and their densities (per man hour) was made as per standard methods. Results: In village of Setting I, during rainy season, An. subpictus and An. stephensi were present while during winter season four species An. subpictus, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies and An. annularis were collected. In all the villages of setting I, II and III no Anopheles mosquito was observed during summer season. In the villages of desert region without any irrigation facilities through any canal, the anopheline species were present only during rainy season. Interpretation and Conclusion: An. stephensi is the major malaria vector of desert irrespective of whether the area is canal irrigated or not. During summer season absence of vector species in all the villages require further studies on micro- ecology of the species under desert conditions.
A-28 Singhi, M, Joshi, V, Sharma, RC, Adha, S and Dixit, AK. Larvicidal efficacy of Calotropis procera against vectors of dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis in Arid Zone of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2005, 44: 185-90.
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Larvicidal efficacy of latex of milky weed plant Calotropis procera of Arid zone has been evaluated against three important vector species viz; Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquificiatus at various concentrations. A concentration of 0.3% latex in water has been found to be optimally effective lethal dose against larvae of all the three mosquito species. Mode of action of larvicide was observed to be systemic in action causing probably GI tract enzymatic/ absorptive induced incapacitation of larvae. Report of Larvicidal properties of C. procera carries significant public health importance for vector control measures against dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis.
A-29 Yadav, SP, Sharma, RC and Joshi, V. Study of social determinants of malaria in desert parts of Rajasthan, India. J. Vect. Borne Dis., 2005, 42: 141-46.
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A longitudinal study on social determinants of malaria has been undertaken in different villages of Ramgarh PHC of Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan. The study aims to determine social determinants of malaria as applicable to existing caste groups of desert part of Rajasthan. Out of 940 households in 5 villages 150 households of Rajput community (Forward Community) and Meghwal community (Back word Community) were selected at random to study whether due to different of existing cast groups, transmission of the malaria and its intensity also vary or not. It was found that magnitude of malaria was three times more in the Meghwal community as compared to Rajput community. In-migration of natives importing malaria was found to be prominent cause of more malaria incidence in the backward community. An intervention policy aiming to study existing status of knowledge among different caste groups of desert areas could lead to a substantial control over in-migration as well as further transmission of disease in desert part of Rajasthan.
A-30 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Laboratory evaluation for comparative insecticidal activity of some synthetic pyrethroids against vector mosquitoes in arid region. J. Environ. Biol., 2006, 27: 251-55.
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Comparative efficacy of three synthetic pyrethroids viz., cypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the three important mosquito vectors prevalent in arid region. Studies were carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instar larvae of these species using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data LC50 and LC90 values along with their fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (X2)/ heterogeneity of the response have been determined by log probit analysis. LC50 values as observed were 0.0064, 0.00060 & 0.00012 mg /l for cypermethrin, 0.0090, 0.0019 & 0.0010 mg /l for lambdacyhalothrin and 0.0087, 0.0005 & 0.0004 mg /l for cyfluthrin for the above three vectors respectively. The results showed that larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were most susceptible followed by Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi to all the pyrethroids tested. The chi-square values calculated during the analysis did not show any heterogeneity of the response. Experiments conducted with adults of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with three synthetic pyrethroids viz. lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%), cyfluthrin (0.15%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) showed that all the three compounds are very effective and a 98- 100% kill was observed when subjected from 15-60 min. time exposure. This study would be useful while planning use of these insecticides for the control of adult mosquito vectors in this area.
A-31 Joshi, Vinod, Sharma, RC, Adha, Sandeep, Sharma, Keerti, Singh, Himmat, Purohit, Anil and Singhi, Manju. Importance of Socio-economic status and tree holes in distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicide) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. J. Med. Entomol., 2006, 43: 330-36.
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Immature Aedes mosquitoes were found in domestic, peridomestic, and tree hole habitats within three socioeconomic strata of Jodhpur, a city within an arid area of Rajasthan, India, endemic for dengue. Peridomestic habitats served as a persistent source of Aedes vectors, especially those used for watering cows for religious reasons that were located within high socioeconomic areas. Domestic (indoor) containers within low socioeconomic strata showed a higher container index (27.0%) than periurban areas with cattle sheds (14.3%) or high socioeconomic areas (18.1%). Mosquitoes were collected in tree holes at zoos and gardens supporting several species of monkeys. Six of 67 Aedes albopictus Skuse reared from immatures collected in tree holes tested positive for dengue antigen acquired through vertical transmission, possibly indicating a persistence mechanism for dengue virus within an urban environment.
A-32 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Relative susceptibility of some common mosquito vector larvae to synthetic insecticidal compounds in north western Rajasthan. J. Environ. Biol., 2006. (In Press)
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Relative Susceptibility of three important mosquito vector larvae viz. Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, prevalent in the arid region was determined against four organophosphates (Malathion, Fenitrothion, Fenthion, Temephos) and three synthetic pyrethroid (Alphamethrin, Deltamethrin and Fanvalerate) compounds. Studies were carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instar larvae of these species using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data LC50 and LC90 values along with their fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (χ2)/ heterogeneity of the response have been determined by log probit regression analysis. LC50 values as observed for the above seven insecticides were 0.8097, 0.0398. 0.0432, 0.0035, 0.0025, 0.0092, 0.1006; 1.2370, 0.0531, 0.0655, 0.0076, 0.00004, 0.00004, 0.0046 and 1.4980, 0.0719, 0.0817, 0.0056, 0.00021, 0.00073, 0.0112 mg/l for the above three mosquito species respectively. Among the four organophosphates tested temephos was the most effective followed by fenitrothion, fenthion and malathion. In general, Anopheles was found more susceptible as compared to the other two culicines to the above four compounds. The results also showed that larvae of Ae. aegypti were most susceptible followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi to all the three pyrethroids tested. Among the three compounds tested alphamethrin was found to be the most toxic followed by deltamethrin while fanvalerate was the least toxic. The study would be of great importance while planning use of these insecticides for the control of different vector species in this area.
B. Japanese Encephalitis
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B-1 Joshi, V and Bansal, SK. Occurrence of Culex vishnui group of mosquitoes in the rural areas of a desert district (Bikaner). Indian J. Med. Res., 1991, 93: 259-61.
Abstract
B-2 Bansal, SK, Joshi V and Singh, Karam V. A survey of the mosquito fauna, with special reference to vectors of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in district Bikaner. Part I The Culicine Fauna. Proc. Acad. Environ. Biol., 1994, 3: 9-15.
Abstract
B-3 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Susceptibility status of two species of Japanese Encephalitis vectors to insecticides in the Thar Desert, district Bikaner (Rajasthan). Indian J. Med. Res., 1995, 101: 190-92.
Abstract
B-4 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Present susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, to conventional and some other insecticides in Kota (Rajasthan). J, Commun, Dis., 1996, 28: 64-66.
Abstract
Abstracts
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B-1 Joshi, V and Bansal, SK. Occurrence of Culex vishnui group of mosquitoes in the rural areas of a desert district (Bikaner). Indian J. Med. Res., 1991, 93: 259-61.
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Two important mosquito vectors viz., Cx. pseudovishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus have been studied with respect to their occurrence, breeding and peculiar resting habitats in the desert district of Bikaner, Rajasthan. Resting habitats such as depressions made on the walls of rain water ponds by water current and breeding habitats like agricultural wells are reported. The abiotic ecological conditions peculiar to desert like saline water, pH and high temperature were correlated with species densities. Combined effect of temperature and relative humidity on species populations of adults showed trend of preference of species towards high relative humidity-temperature combinations. More larval breeding in water during August was observed. High larval density was found in the alkaline pH range of 8.6 to 9.2.
B-2 Bansal, SK, Joshi, V and Singh, Karam V. A survey of the mosquito fauna, with special reference to vectors of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in district Bikaner. Part I The Culicine Fauna. Proc. Acad. Environ. Biol., 1994, 3: 9-15.
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A survey on the seasonal prevalence, distribution pattern along with the associated breeding habitats of different mosquito species, especially the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vectors was carried out in district Bikaner. Among the culicine fauna two major genera of mosquitoes Viz. Culex and Aedes have been observed to be prevalent in all the four tehsils of Bikaner district. The species belonging to genus Culex are Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. raptor, Cx. sitiens, while those belonging to genus Aedes are Aedes aegypti, Ae.vittatus and Ae. W-albus. The species Cx. pseudovishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus are the proven JE vectors which are a unique finding for this desert region.
B-3 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Susceptibility status of two species of Japanese Encephalitis vectors to insecticides in the Thar desert, district Bikaner(Rajasthan). Indian J. Med. Res., 1995, 101: 190-92.
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Susceptibility tests were conducted on the adults of two species of Japanese encephalitis vectors viz. Culex pseudovishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus against diagnostic doses of DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin at different exposure duration. Cx. pseudovishnui was found susceptible to permethrin and resistant to dieldrin and propoxur while Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was found susceptible to permethrin and resistant to DDT, dieldrin, fenitrothion and propoxur. Verification, however, was required with other insecticides for both the species.
B-4 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Present susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, to conventional and some other insecticides in Kota (Rajasthan). J. Commun. Dis., 1996, 28: 64-66.
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The studies on the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, a vector of JE, to conventional and other potent insecticides were carried out in Kota, which is not only surrounded with paddy fields with an enormous breeding potential of this species , but also harbours labour employed in a major thermal power plant, migrating from JE epidemic areas. The species was found susceptible only to permethrin, resistant to DDT, dieldrin, malathion and propoxur, and partial resistant to fenitrothion. The LC50 and LC95 values of DDT and dieldrin and LT50 and LT95 values of malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin in future would not only be used to elucidate the degree of resistance developed in the species, but also be used in deciding the insecticide of choice during the epidemics.
C. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
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C-1 Mahapatra, N, Joshi, V and Bansal, S.K. Host preference pattern of phlebotomine sandflies of Bikaner City. Indian J. Med. Res., 1991, 93: 328-29.
Abstract
C-2 Joshi, V, Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Sandfly fauna of domestic and para-domestic habitats in arid and semi-arid zones of Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1992, 95: 93-94.
Abstract
C-3 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Susceptibility status of Phlebotomus papatasi and Sergentomyia punjabensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). J. Commun. Dis., 1996, 28: 28-32.
Abstract
C-4 Bansal, SK, Chaudhary, RC, Singh, Karam V, and Lakshminarayana J. Seasonal prevalence and insecticide susceptibility status of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the north-western Thar (District Bikaner, Rajasthan). Annals of Arid zone, 1996, 35: 377-82.
Abstract
C-5 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi to organo-chlorine, organophosphate and carbamate compounds in some arid areas of western Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 103: 91-93.
Abstract
C-6 Joshi, V, Bansal, SK and Mahapatra, N. Entomological and Parasitological Studies on Cutancous Leishmaniasis in a Desert District, Bikaner, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 1998, 22: 48-52.
Abstract
C-7 Singh, Karam V. Studies on the role of climatological factors in the distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in semi arid areas of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Arid Environments, 1999, 42: 43-48.
Abstract
Abstracts
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C-1 Mahapatra, N, Joshi, V and Bansal, S.K. Host preference pattern of phlebotomine sandflies of Bikaner City. Indian J. Med. Res., 1991, 93: 328-29.
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Host preference pattern of phlebotomine sandflies was ascertained using the precipitin test. Engorged sandflies from endemic localities revealed that out of 126 blood meals 88.8 percent were human blood, 7.3 percent bovine blood and 3.9 percent mixed for both human and bovine. Four of five Sergentomyia babu were positive for human blood and the remaining one for bovine. Two S. baghdadis collected had only human blood, of two S. punjabensis collected, one had human blood. Mixed human and bovine blood meal was detected in the other one. Phebotomus papatasi appears to be the most common vector of leishmaniasis and another important observation was the repeated feeding by sandflies within a short period and anthropophilic nature of Sergentomyia species.
C-2 Joshi, V, Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Sandfly fauna of domestic and para-domestic habitats in arid and semi-arid zones of Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1992, 95: 93-94.
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Sandfly fauna of three districts of Rajasthan representing arid and semi-arid environments are described. A total of 2,042 sandflies belonging to two genera and seven species were collected. The arid district of Bikaner with irrigational development (by means of canal) showed considerably higher density of species. Phlebotomus papatasi (16.5 PMH) as compared to Jodhpur district (1.0 PMH). The species encountered were P. papatasi, P. sergenti, Sergentomyia punjabensis, S. babu babu, S. clydei. S. baghdadis and S. chistophersi.
C-3 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Susceptibility status of Phlebotomus papatasi and Sergentomyia punjabensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in district Bikaner (Rajasthan). J. Commun. Dis., 1996, 28: 28-32.
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Susceptibility tests were carried out on the females of two species of sandflies viz. Phlebotomus papatasi and Sergentomyia Punjabensis against six insecticides viz. DDT and dieldrin (organochlorines); malathion, fenitrothion (organophosphates); propoxur (carbamate) and permethrin (synthetic pyrethroid) in district Bikaner, Rajasthan. A concentration and time dependent effect was observed with insecticides for both the species. P. papatasi was found resistant to DDT, dieldrin and propoxur while susceptible to malathion, fenitrothion and permethrin. However, S. punjabensis was found susceptible to all the insecticides tested. LC50 and LT50 value estimated for DDT and dieldrin for P.papatasi and S. punjabensis were found to be 2.2 and 0.3% x 1hr and 1.45 and 0.032% x 15 min. respectively.
C-4 Bansal, SK, Chaudhary, RC, Singh, Karam V and Lakshminarayana, J. Seasonal prevalence and insecticide susceptibility status of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the north-western Thar (District Bikaner, Rajasthan). Annals of Arid zone, 1996, 35: 377-82.
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A study was carried out on the seasonal prevalence and insecticide susceptibility status of phlebotomine sandflies in different villages of district Bikaner during 1994-1995. Five species of sandflies viz. Phlebotomus papatasi (71.1%), Sergentomyia Punjabensis (19.0%), S. babu babu (7.3%), S. clydei (1.8%), and S. Baghdadis (0.8%) were collected from indoor habitats like human dwellings, cattle sheds and rodent burrows. Maximum densities of all the sandflies was observed during the monsoon and post- monsoon season (July October) followed by spring (March and April), summer (May and June) and winter season (November to February). P. papatasi revealed that it is susceptible to fenitrothion and permethrin, resistant to DDT, dieldrin and propoxur while verification was required with malathion. LC50 values for DDT and dieldrin were 4.3 and 0.43% respectively, while LT50 values for fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin were 42.6, 50.0 and 15.7 minutes, respectively.
C-5 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate compounds in some arid areas of western Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 103: 91-93.
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Insecticide susceptibility status of P. papatasi to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamete compounds has been estimated in 2 desert districts (Pali & Barmer) of Rajasthan. Tests revealed that the species was resistant to DDT, but susceptible to dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion and propoxur. The LC50 values for both DDT and dieldrin were found much lower than those reported from other parts of the country. Heterogeneity of the response was found highly significant in case of propoxur.
C-6 Joshi, V, Bansal, SK and Mahapatra, N. Entomological and Parasitological Studies on Cutancous Leishmaniasis in a Desert District, Bikaner, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 1998, 22: 48-52.
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Dracunculiasis (infection by the guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis) has been a major rural waterborne problem in many areas of arid western Rajasthan. The presence of temporary ponds in endemic areas offers a peculiar habitat to cyclops, the vector of the disease. Cyclops can withstand drying of the ponds and regain viability when ponds refill during rains. Cyclops shows a diurnal cycle of migratory movements under natural as well as experimental conditions. The species of cyclops acting as intermediate host in endemic areas is Cyclops atter. This carnivorous species is highly predatory on the infective first stage larvae of D. medinensis in experimental infection trials. Survival of infective guinea worm embryos in free-living form till ingested by vector is favoured by an alkaline pH of the water. Measurements of water volume in ponds, removal of soil from dry ponds to discard cyclops eggs and recording the visit history of guinea worm patients are suggested as useful additions to an eradication programme against dracunculiasis. Literature concerning epidemiological, vector-biological and parasitological aspects of dracunculiasis as relevant to the desert districts of Rajasthan is reviewed.
C-7 Singh, Karam V. Studies on the role of climatological factors in the distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in semi arid areas of Rajasthan, India. J. Arid Environments, 1999, 42: 43-48.
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Eight phlebotomine sandfly species were encountered from rural areas of semi-arid region, four of which were found to be adapted to a wide range of temperatures and relative humidity (Phlebotomus papatasi, Sergentomyia punjabensis, S. babu & S. baghdadis). In contrast, P. sergenti, S. christophersi, S. clydie and S. eadithae were confined to a limited range of temperature and RH. Phlebotomine prevalence, recorded during the studies, showed a definite correlation with temperature (p<0.05) and a moderately negative correlation with RH. The high prevalence of females in higher temperatures indicates their ability to withstand these temperatures, and can be considered a matter of epidemiological importance as it may help in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in arid conditions.
D. Tuberculosis
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D-1 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary, RC. Desert Lung Syndrome in rural dwellers of Thar Desert in India. J.  Arid Environments, 1997, 35: 559-62.
Abstract
D-2 Mathur, ML, LoBue, PA and Catanzaro, A. Evaluation of a serologic test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc.  Lung Dis., 1999, 3: 732-35.
Abstract
D-3 Mathur, ML. Silicosis and Tuberculosis in Quarry Workers of Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Indian J. Chest Dis. Allied Sci., 2000, 42: 40.
Abstract
D-4 Mathur, ML, Khatri, PK and Bais, CS. Drug resistance in Tuberculosis in Jodhpur District. Ind. J. Med. Sciences, 2000, 54: 55-58.
Abstract
D-5 Mathur, ML and Sachdev, R. Potential Utility of BCG Test in excluding Tuberculosis in adults. Resp. Med., 2003, 97: 528-532.
Abstract
D-6 Mathur, ML and Sachdev, R. Temperature affects results of Glutaraldehyde Test for diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Int. J. tubercul. and Lung Dis., 2005, 9: 200-205.
Abstract
D-7 Mathur ML. Potential utility of Mycobacterium w vaccine in control of tuberculosis. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews, 2006, 2: 183-88.
Abstract
Abstracts
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D-1 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary, RC. Desert Lung Syndrome in rural dwellers of Thar Desert in India. J.  Arid Environments, 1997, 35: 559-562.
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'Desert Lung Syndrome' has occasionally been reported from desert areas in various countries. It denotes non-occupational silicosis in rural desert dwellers. Subjects attending the District TB Clinic, Jodhpur in the Thar Desert of India, were screened for it. X-rays of their chest were taken at 300 mA, and read using the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. Radiographs of five subjects showed opacities suggestive of pneumoconiosis. However, none of them was ever engaged in any occupation which can predispose pneumoconiosis.
D-2 Mathur, ML, LoBue, PA and Catanzaro, A. Evaluation of a serologic test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc.  Lung Dis., 1999, 3: 732-35.
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The ict tb test, a new, simple, serologic diagnostic test for tuberculosis (tb), was performed on serum samples from individuals seen at an urban teaching hospital and a local health department clinic. The study population included cases of tb, disease with mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (mott), non-mycobacterial pulmonary disease, and healthy controls. In contrast to prior studies, we found the ict tb test had little value in detection of new cases of tb (overall sensitivity was 20%). It had very low sensitivity (4%) in the first month of disease. the sensitivity improved in patients tested at least 3 months after clinical presentation, but still remained fairly low. the test was also positive in 30% cases of disease caused by mott demonstrating cross-reactivity. It was negative in all human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) positive cases of tb or mott. the overall specificity was 89%. At least part of the discrepancy between our results and those of previous investigators may be attributable to differences in the respective study populations, including incidence of hiv disease and duration of tuberculosis illness prior to testing.
D-3 Mathur, ML. Silicosis and Tuberculosis in Quarry Workers of Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Indian J. Chest Dis. Allied Sci., 2000, 42: 40.
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There are more than 50,000 workers engaged in more than 15000 sand stone quarry works in Jodhpur district. A cross sectional study of randomly selected sample of 416 workers was done keeping in view their risk of developing occupational pneumoconiosis. Their chest radiographs (PA view) were carried out at 300 mA. Pneumociniosis was detected in one tenth of radiographs and its prevalence increased with age and duration of work in quarries. Prevalence of radiological opacities suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis was very high, more so in pneumoconiotics. Prevalence of tuberculosis was significantly more in smokers; it increased with duration of exposure and age. History of hemoptysis in last five years was given bu 24.8% quarry workers. Forty-two ex-workers were also studied. Majority (88.1%) of them were symptomatic. One third of them were silicotics and 42.9% showed opacities suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiography. Prevalence of tuberculosis in ex-workers was 26.2 percent. Concentration of respirable particles in breathing zone of quarry workers and free silica contents of dust were very high as compared to threshold limit value suggested by American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH 1986).
D-4 Mathur, ML, Khatri, PK and Bais, CS. Drug resistance in Tuberculosis in Jodhpur District. Ind. J. Med. Sci., 2000, 54: 55-58.
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Drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious problem in control of tuberculosis. To assess this problem in Jodhpur district, Sputum samples of symptomatic quarry workers and cases of pulmonary tuberculosis attending District Tuberculosis Clinic (DTC) Jodhpur were tested for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and their sensitivity to antituberculous drugs, using proportion method. Primary drug resistance to isoniazid was observed in 16.67%, to streptomycin in 16.67%, to ethambutol in 6.67% and to rifampicin in 6.67%. Acquired resistance to isoniazid was 61.76%, to streptomycin was 51.52%, to rifampicin was also 70.59%, and to ethambutol was 39.39%. Proportion of Multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB defined as resistant to at least isoniazid and and rifampicin, was 3.3% in new cases (primary drug resistance) and 38.2% in old cases (acquired drug resistance), the later may be due to inadequate treatment, the the history of which was present in most cases. Adequate treatment of such cases with effective regimens is of vital importance to prevent the spread of MDR TB.
D-5 Mathur, ML and Sachdev, R. Potential Utility of BCG Test in excluding Tuberculosis in adults. Resp. Med., 2003, 97: 528-32.
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In developing countries, many sputum-negative suspects of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are given antituberculous medication just because tuberculosis (TB) could not be excluded in them. Many studies have shown that BCG test is nearly 100% sensitive, except in those with severe malnutrition, steroid therapy and other causes of immunosuppression. The aim of the present study was to find out the proportion of PTB suspects in whom BCG test may be useful in excluding diagnosis of TB. The study was carried out on adult subjects attending District Tuberculosis Clinic (DTC), Pali, Rajasthan, India. Out of 104 subjects studied, all 18 sputum-positive subjects showed a positive BCG test indicating 100% sensitivity of the test. The result of BCG test was negative in 16.28% of 86 sputum-negative suspects of TB. The BCG test did not show any adverse reactions among these cases except for adenitis of axillary or cervical lymph nodes in 6.7% subjects. The study raises the possibility that BCG test may be useful in excluding diagnosis of tuberculosis in a proportion of adult sputum negative-suspects of PTB in developing countries like India. More studies are needed in this direction.
D-6 Mathur, ML and Sachdev, R. Temperature affects results of Glutaraldehyde Test for diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Int. J. Tubercul. Lung Dis., 2005, 9: 200-05.
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SETTING: Subjects attending the District Tuberculosis Clinic and a Teaching Hospital in Jodhpur were studied at the Desert Medicine Research Centre, Jodhpur. OBJECTIVES: To confirm the effect of temperature on the results of the blood glutaraldehyde test (GT) and to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the restandardised test procedure. DESIGN: Blood glutaraldehyde gelification time (BGGT) was compared, in the same blood samples, at 19, 22 and 25 degrees C and after storage at 1) room temperature and at 2) 2-8 degrees C for 3-5 h, using the paired t-test. After restandardisation of the procedure, the GT was carried out on 88 sputum culture-positive cases with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 182 controls. The technician was blinded to patient information. RESULTS: BGGT significantly varied with the temperature of the water bath and the temperature at which blood samples were stored before testing. When the test was carried out in the water bath at 22 degrees C after storing blood for 3-5 h at 2-8 degrees C, as per the restandardised procedure, the specificity of GT was 96.2% (95 %CI 93.36-98.95) and the sensitivity was 84.1% (95%CI 76.45-91.73). CONCLUSION: Restandardised GT is a reliable, simple, easy, rapid, inexpensive and user-friendly test for diagnosis of PTB which does not require sophisticated laboratory equipment.
D-7 Mathur ML. Potential utility of Mycobacterium w vaccine in control of tuberculosis. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews, 2006, 2: 183-88.
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Mycobacterium w is a non-pathogenic, saprophytic, atypical mycobacterium with the ability to produce macrophage activating factors from lymphocytes of human patients. Prior immunization with heat-killed suspension of Mycobacterium w shows protection against sub-lethal infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in mice. Heatkilled Mycobacterium w vaccine is manufactured by M/s Cadila Pharmaceuticals, Ahmedabad, India. Combined heatkilled M. w vaccine and multidrug treatment (MDT) revealed clinical, histological and bacteriological improvements in highly bacillated untreated anergic lepromatous cases of leprosy. In healthy contacts of leprosy patients, M w vaccine has shown lepromin conversion and protection against leprosy. Only a few clinical studies have been carried out using antituberculous treatment with and without M w vaccine in pulmonary tuberculosis, in which faster sputum conversion and higher cure rate have been observed in M w group. M. w vaccine has shown potential of Tuberculin conversion in HIV positive subjects. In a study, five monthly doses of M. w vaccine have shown highly significant increase in CD4 count in HIV positive human beings. More clinical trials are needed to confirm beneficial role of M. w vaccine as an immunomodulator in therapy and prevention of tuberculosis, particularly so in multi drug resistant tuberculosis and those with HIV infection.
E. Urolithiasis
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E-1 Mathur, ML and Bansal, RK. An Epidemiological study of Urolithiasis in Western Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1992, 31: 218-24.
Abstract
E-2 Haldiya, KR, Bhandari, NS, Singh, Madhu B, Beniwal, VK and Lakshminarayana, J. Chemical composition of Urinary calculi in desert region of Rajasthan, India. J. Hum. Ecol., 1999, 10: 69-72.
Abstract
Abstracts
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E-1 Mathur, ML and Bansal, RK. An Epidemiological study of Urolithiasis in Western Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1992, 31: 218-24.
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Record of 24 years of a teaching hospital in desert of northwest India was analysed. Urolithiasis constituted 1.21% of all hospital admissions and 3.74% of surgical admissions, which is very high index as compared to rest of India. Lower urinary calculi showed declining secular trend. Problem of upper urinary calculi declined up to 1968 but showed increase with interruptions thereafter. Urinary stones particularly lower urinary calculi were more common in rural areas. Overall annual incidence of urinary calculi was 34.90 (upper=20.71, lower=14.19) per lakh in males and 7.67 (Upper=6.46, lower= 1.21) per lakh in females in Jodhpur town. Peek of upper urinary calculi was in the age of (20- 44) years in females and 20-59 years age in males. Incidence of lower urinary calculi was highest in under-fives. More cases of urolithiasis, ingunal henia as well as appendicitis were operated in summer months, hence seasonal trend in their occurrence seems to be false.
E-2 Haldiya, KR, Bhandari, NS, Singh, Madhu B, Beniwal, VK and Lakshminarayana, J. Chemical composition of Urinary calculi in desert region of Rajasthan, India. J. Hum. Ecol., 1999, 10: 69-72.
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A hospital based study was carried out to determine the major chemical components of urinary calculi in desert region of Rajasthan for this, a total of 188 urinary calculi were analysed by qualitative chemical method, of which 105 were Upper Urinary Tract (UUT) calculi and 83 Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) calculi. The calcium oxalate calculi (23.8 %) and calcium oxalate phosphate (25.7 %) calculi were higher in UUT calculi. while mixed calculi were higher in LUT calculi. The oxalate component was higher in UUT calculi while ammonium, magnesium carbonate and uric acid components were higher in LUT calculi. The other components like calcium and phosphates were same in both types of calculi.
F. Hypertension
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F-1 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R, Beniwal, VK, Singh, Madhu B, Yadav, SP and Lakshminarayana, J. Morbidity pattern of Desert Population engaged in salt manufacture in Rajasthan. J. Ind. Med. Assoc., 1995, 93: 95-97.
Abstract
F-2 Haldiya, KR, Dixit, AK and Sachdev, R. Letter to Editor on an article. Is the rule of halves in Hypertension still valid? Evidence from the Chennai Urban Population study. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2003, 51: 931.
Abstract
F-3 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R and Saiyed, HN. Risk of high blood pressure in Salt Workers working near salt milling plants: A Cross sectional and interventional study. Environ. Health, 2005, 4: 13.
Abstract
F-4 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R and Saiyed, HN. Dermal ulcers and hypertension in salt workers. Current Science, 2004, 87: 1139-41.
Abstract
Abstracts
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F-1 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R, Beniwal, VK, Singh, Madhu B, Yadav, SP and Lakshminarayana, J. Morbidity pattern of Desert Population engaged in salt manufacture in Rajasthan. J. Indian Med. Assoc., 1995, 93: 95-97.
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A total of 2120 salt workers were examined in 8 camps organized at different salt sites in Rajasthan. These camps were organized to find out the morbidity conditions among the salt workers and to provide the preventive and curative treatment for the ailments. The majority of the salt workers who attended the camps were males (79 %) in comparison to females (21.0 %). The majority of workers belonged to Scheduled Castes followed by Backward Class and Scheduled Tribes at all sites. The major morbidity disorders observed during these camps were dermatological, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastro-intestinal and ophthalmological in both the sexes. The prevalence of hypertension was 4.3% among both the sexes. The morbidity pattern in male workers was agreeing among Sujangarh and Kuchaman and after that Pokran and Didwana were agreeing with highest rank correlation, whereas in female workers it was agreeing with among Nawa and Sujangarh and after that Phalodi and Pokran were agreeing with highest correlation.
F-2 Haldiya, KR, Dixit, AK and Sachdev, R. Letter to Editor on an article. Is the rule of halves in Hypertension still valid? Evidence from the Chennai Urban Population study. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2003, 51: 931.
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Rule of Halves in Hypertension is not valid in urban and rural area of India as it will then underestimate the prevalence of hypertension in the country.
F-3 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R and Saiyed, HN. Risk of high blood pressure in Salt Workers working near salt milling plants: A Cross sectional and interventional study. Environ. Health, 2005, 4: 13.
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BACKGROUND: Workers working close to salt milling plants may inhale salt particles floating in the air, leading to a rise in plasma sodium, which, in turn, may increase the blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. METHODS: To test the above hypothesis, occupational health check-up camps were organized near salt manufacturing units and all workers were invited for a free health examination. The workers who worked with dry salt in the vicinity of salt milling plants were defined as "non-brine workers," while those working in brine pans located far away from milling plants were defined as "brine workers." Blood pressure (BP) was measured during each clinical examination. In all, 474 non-brine workers and 284 brine workers were studied. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure of non-brine workers (122.1 +/- 13.3 mm Hg) was significantly higher than that of brine workers (118.8 +/- 12.8 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Mean diastolic blood pressure of non-brine workers (71.5 +/- 10.4 mm Hg) was significantly higher than that of brine workers (69.7 +/- 9.4 mm Hg, p = 0.02). The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in non-brine workers (12.2%) than in brine workers (7.0%, p = 0.02). Nineteen salt workers were monitored while they used face masks and spectacles, for six days. Systolic, as well as diastolic, blood pressure of these workers began declining on the third day and continued to decline on the fourth day, but remained stationary up to the sixth day. The concentration of salt particles in the breathing zone of these workers was 376 mg/m3 air. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of salt particles in non-brine workers may be an occupational cause of increased blood pressure.
F-4 Haldiya, KR, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R and Saiyed HN. Dermal ulcers and hypertension in salt workers. Current Science, 2004, 87: 1139-41.
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In the process of salt manufacture, brine rich in salt is filled in broad pans exposed to direct sunlight. Brine workers keep their feet in the brine while working in these pans. They frequently have traumatic ulcers on their feet and hands. The aim of the present communication was to find out if prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure in brine workers was affected by the presence of ulcers on their limbs. In our cross-sectional observational study, all workers (n=218) were clinically examined. Blood pressure was measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure off brine workers having ulcer5s on their limbs was compared with those not having the ulcers. In brine workers having ulcers prevalence of hyper tension was 15.6%, while it was 4.3% in those not having ulcer. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the group of brine workers with ulcers (P=0.036) and this may be due to absorption of salt through the damaged skin.
G.Nutrition
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G-1 Krishnamachari, KAVR, Lakshminarayana, J, Rajalaxmi, K, Ganguly, KK, Yadav, SP, Dixit, AK, Mahapatra, A, Dam, PK, Chand, Ramesh and Pandey, RM. Calorie and protein consumption pattern among rural residents of typical desert districts during drought A two point study. Annals of Arid Zone, 1992, 31: 25-32.
Abstract
G-2 Haldiya, KR, Singh, Madhu B and Lakshminarayana, J. Assessment of nutritional and immunization status of preschool children in rural area of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 37-44.
Abstract
G-3 Ramnath, T, Ganguly, KK, Mahapatra, A, Yadav, SP, and Pandey, RM. Dietary intakes, Knowledge of people about the disease and nutritional disorders in two desert districts of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1993, 33: 59-62.
Abstract
G-4 Ramnath, T and Krishnamachari, KAVR. Anthropometric measurements, deficiency signs and their relationship under drought conditions. Indian. J. Matern. Child Health, 1993, 4: 42-47.
Abstract
G-5 Singh, Madhu B. Dietary beliefs and practices of pregnant and lactating women in rural areas of Jaipur district (Raj.). Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 198-03.
Abstract
G-6 Singh, Madhu B. Maternal beliefs and practices regarding the diet and use of herbal medicines during measles and diarrhoea in rural areas. Indian Pediatr., 1994, 31: 340-43.
Abstract
G-7 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Yadav, SP, Lakshminarayana, J, Mathur, ML, Sachdeva, R and Beniwal, VK.  Nutritional status of school age children of salt-workers in Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 103; 304-09.
Abstract
G-8 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Infant feeding and weaning practices in some rural areas of Rajasthan. JIMA, 1997, 95: 576-78.
Abstract
G-9 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Food habits in semi-arid areas of Rajasthan. J. Hum. Ecol., Special Issue No. 7, 1999, 115-17.
Abstract
G-10 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Nutritional status of pre-school children in desert areas of Rajasthan. Proc. Intl. Conf. Women in Science, Mumbai, 1999, 237-41.
Abstract
G-11 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Morbidity Pattern and its association with malnutrition in preschool children in desert areas of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Arid Environments, 2002, 51: 461-68.
Abstract
G-12 Singh, Madhu B and Lakshminarayana J. Study on prevalent Maternal Beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses in Thar desert, Rajasthan, Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 85-88.
Abstract
G-13 Fotedar, R, Lakshminarayana, J, Ramnath, T and Singh, Madhu, B. Nutritional status, breast feeding and supplementation pattern among the working women of Jodhpur city. Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 183-189.
Abstract
G-14 Singh, Madhu B. Anthropometric assessment of the nutrition in female children of Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2004, 43: 199-03.
Abstract
G-15 Singh, Madhu B. Nutritional aspects of children residing in desert areas of Rajasthan. Proc. of Workshop on Research Methodologies for Micronutrients Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 2004, 21-25.
Abstract
G-16 Singh, Madhu B, Fotedar, R and Lakshminarayana, J. Occupational morbidities and their association with nutrition and environmental factors among textile workers of desert areas of Rajasthan, India. J. Occup. Health, 2005, 47: 371-77.
Abstract
G-17 Singh, Madhu B, Fotedar, R, Lakshminarayana, J and Anand, PK. Studies on the nutritional status of children aged 05 years in a drought-affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India. Pub. Health Nutrition, 2006. 9: 961-67.
Abstract
G-18 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J, Fotedar, R and Anand, PK. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition in under five children in drought affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India. J. Commun. Dis., 2006, 38: 88-96.
Abstract
Abstracts
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G-1 Krishnamachari, KAVR, Lakshminarayana, J, Rajalaxmi, K, Ganguly, KK, Yadav, SP, Dixit, AK, Mahapatra, A, Dam, PK, Chand, Ramesh and Pandey, RM. Calorie and protein consumption pattern among rural residents of typical desert districts during drought A two point study. Annals of Arid Zone, 1992, 31: 25-32.
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A two point survey of cereal consumption has been carried out in six districts during drought in 1988. Two thousand persons representing each district and drawn from 10 villages were examined with regard to their millet consumption pattern. The mean calorie intakes were ranged from 301-982 Kcal per day in preschool children. Similarly among 5-15 years age group in both the sexes the deficits were observed to be ranging from 31.9% to 68.5%. The deficits ranging from 11.9% to 57.0% among 15-45 years age group, however in all the districts except in Jodhpur and Jalore the intakes were lower as compared to ICMR recommended dietary allowances. Protein deficit were seen in all the age groups in all the districts but were relatively less as compared to corresponding calorie intake. The mean body weights and actual calorie consumption in Barmer district were observed to be more compared to other districts which is around 46 Kgs and 2400 Kcals respectively
G-2 Haldiya, KR, Singh, Madhu B and Lakshminarayana, J. Assessment of nutritional and immunization status of preschool children in rural area of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 37-44.
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The present study was carried out in 391 households belonging to 38 villages of 9 tehsils of Jaipur district, Rajasthan. A total of 326 preschool children were examined for anthropometry (weight and height), immunization and feeding practices. Results revealed that 60.5 % preschool children were suffering from long duration deficiency in food intake which is due to poor socio-economic status and large family size. Immunization status was found to be very poor which was due to unawareness of mothers about the immunization program, lack of immunization facilities and thirdly misconceptions of mother due to fear of vaccine reactions. The percentage of infants totally breast fed was found to be higher in 0 - 6 months age groups thereby indicating a need for intensive health education at community level.
G-3 Ramnath, T, Ganguly, KK, Mahapatra, A, Yadav, SP, and Pandey, RM. Dietary intakes, Knowledge of people about the disease and nutritional disorders in two desert districts of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1993, 33: 59-62.
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A comprehensive health survey was initiated in 1986, in two desert districts of Rajasthan covering 512 households from 19 villages and 438 households from 15 villages from Jodhpur and Bikaner districts respectively, The results show that more than 30% of the families have to travel more than 10 Km to avail any health facilities, More than 50% of the respondents had the knowledge of fever, diarrhea, worm infestation, measles, malaria and guinea worm. However, their knowledge about nutritional disorders was poor in both the districts. The diets were predominantly based on bajara and wheat. The consumption of pulses, vegetables fats and oil, sugar and other foods were far from satisfactory and were below 30 g. The nutrients intakes (except protein) were inadequate in all the age groups but the deficits of nutrients were observed to be more pronounced among children below 12 years.
G-4 Ramnath, T and Krishnamachari, KAVR. Anthropometric measurements, deficiency signs and their relationship under drought conditions. Indian. J. Matern. Child Health, 1993, 4: 42-47.
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In October-November 1987 in India, the Desert Medicine Research Centre in Jodhpur conducted a rapid anthropometric survey of 555 preschool children in 4 districts of Rajasthan which had been severely affected by drought (Jodhpur, Jalore, Nagpur, and Barmer districts) to determine the association between anthropometric measurements and various nutritional deficiency signs and infections. Based on weight for age, 82.3% of the children were undernourished. 13.3% of all children were severely malnourished (grade III undernutrition). Anemia, protein energy malnutrition (PEM), and upper respiratory infections occurred significantly more often as one digressed from the normal nutrition grade. These 3 conditions were also closely linked to weight status. Based on height for age, 62.4% of the children were chronically undernourished. 11.9% of all children were severely so. PEM was the only deficiency sign or infection associated with height status (6.2% of children with normal nutrition had PEM vs. 15.0% for grade I undernutrition and 34.8% for grade II undernutrition; p .001). Vitamin A deficiency, anemia, and PEM occurred more frequently as one went from normal nutrition to grade II undernutrition based on fat fold at triceps (FFT) measurements. PEM and upper respiratory infections were significantly associated with weight for height status. Weight correctly identified 84% of all nutritional deficiency signs and infections. The corresponding figures for height, FFT, and weight for height were 64.2%, 75.4%, and 31%. Thus, weight was the most sensitive screening measurement in identifying nutritional deficiency signs and infections. Based on weight alone, the odds ratio of undernourished children developing Vitamin b-complex deficiency, PEM, and upper respiratory infections was 1.58, 3.25, and 1.77, respectively. Weight for height was the most specific screening measurement (88.2% vs. 44.7% for height, 29.3% for FFT, and 26.1% for weight).
G-5 Singh, Madhu B. Dietary beliefs and practices of pregnant and lactating women in rural areas of Jaipur district (Raj.). Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 198-03.
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The information regarding food and herbal medicines was collected from 208 household of 21 villages of Jaipur district (Rajasthan). Analysis revealed that during early lactation, more stress was given on taking of special foods such as milk, Pag / Laddus made up of Gond, Ajwain, Supari, Sonth, etc. as they consider these food to be hot and believe to induce warmth and avoid cold during lactation. Dietary beliefs during pregnancy and lactation are mostly centered on hot and cold foods or gas producing foods. A well established physiological basis for this concept is still lacking demanding a more work in this direction.
G-6 Singh, Madhu B. Maternal beliefs and practices regarding the diet and use of herbal medicines during measles and diarrhoea in rural areas. Indian Pediatr., 1994, 31: 340-43.
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The study was conducted in 21 villages of Jaipur district (Rajasthan) and collected information regarding food and herbal medicines from 208 household. This study showed that mothers in rural areas are very particular about their cultural beliefs and practices. It can be concluded that while planning a Nutritional and health education program, beliefs regarding culturally accepted and restricted foods in particular area should be given due consideration.
G-7 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Yadav, SP, Lakshminarayana, J, Mathur, ML, Sachdev, R and Beniwal, VK.  Nutritional status of school age children of salt-workers in Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Res., 1996, 103: 304-09.
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Nutritional status of 1044 school age children (6-18 yr) of salt manufacturing sites of Rajasthan was assessed using anthropometry. Heights and weights of girls were observed to be better than boys in the menarcheal age groups. Children of the present study showed reduced growth in comparision to National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS), WHO, well-to-do Indian children and Rajasthan referance values of the same age groups. The prevalence of stunted with severe wasting was 4.5 % in the children of salt workers. Higher prevalence of severe wasting was observed in girls than boys (p<0.01).
G-8 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Infant feeding and weaning practices in some rural areas of Rajasthan. JIMA, 1997, 95: 576-78.
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The paper contains information on infant feeding and weaning practices in rural communities of a semi-arid district of Rajasthan. The findings have been drawn from a recent survey of 328 rural mothers. The rural women from this area are found to believe in old deep seated beliefs and customs, which in turn deprive their infants from advantages of colostrums (77 % discarded colostrum) and nutritionally rich supplements, which otherwise should be supplemented to them at any cost in order to keep them healthy. The practices of prolonged breast feeding and delayed supplementation to infants are rampant in this area. Mean age at weaning (27.1 months) again not only affects the health status of mothers and their children, but also leads to under nutrition among both. The findings of the study necessitate evolving an exhaustive educative program dealing with various aspects of infant feeding and weaning practices, keeping in view their traditions, so that useful practices can be encouraged and harmful ones can be prohibited.
G-9 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Food habits in semi-arid areas of Rajasthan. J. Hum. Ecol., Special Issue No. 7, 1999, 115-17.
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A diet survey was conducted in rural population of Jaipur district representing a semi-arid zone of Rajasthan, to investigate the various food ingredients consumed by local inhabitants. Agriculture was the principal source of income, followed by animal keeping and labour. Wheat and Bajara are staple diet of this region, but former constitute the major proportion of the diet. In general average daily consumption of different food items i.e. cereals & millets, pulses, fats, and oils and milk was found more in males than females, in different age groups. In general, vitamin A deficiency was more pronounced in all age groups.
G-10 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Nutritional status of pre-school children in desert areas of Rajasthan. Proc. Intl. Conf. Women in Science, Mumbai, 1999, 237-41.
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The  study has been carried out in 17 villages of desert districts of Rajasthan. A total of 538 houses hold was covered out of which 834 under five children were examined. Results of the preschool children of desert areas of Rajasthan suffered from PCM, Vitamin A and C complex deficiencies and anthropometrically also showed growth retardation. This may be due to high percentage of illiteracy and low income of their parents. Malnutrition in children can be prevented by improving in education levels of the parents as well as their economic status.
G-11 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Lakshminarayana, J. Morbidity Pattern and its association with malnutrition in preschool children in desert areas of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Arid Environments, 2002, 51: 461-68.
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The  study has been carried out in 17 villages of desert districts of Rajasthan. A total of 538 house-holds were covered out of which 834 pre school children were examined. 16.4 percent were found to be sick at the time of survey. 10.7% suffered from skin morbidities, 8.9 percent from eye morbidities and 7.2 percent from fever. Eye morbidities, fever and other problems were observed to be higher in females than males. The prevalence of associated signs of Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM) was observed significantly higher in the present study than Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) study. Percent prevalence of Anemia, Vitamin A & B-complex deficiencies along with skin, eye and respiratory morbidities were observed to be higher in desert areas as compared to the data of non-desert areas. This may be attributed to high percentage of illiteracy, low income of their parents, poor housing conditions and exposure of the studied population to harsh environmental conditions of desert areas, which mainly leads to malnutrition and in turn to higher prevalence of morbidity in desert populations.
G-12 Singh, Madhu B and Lakshminarayana, J. Study on prevalent Maternal Beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses in Thar Desert, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 85-88.
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A study was conducted in 17 villages of Thar desert, categorized in 3 ecological sub regions i.e. Marusthali, Shekhawati and Luni basin. Information on maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illnesses, demography and other socio-economic aspects was collected through interview techniques from 434 rural young mothers who represented the entire caste groups present. The respondents opined on the basis of their traditional beliefs, items preferred and restricted during different types of illness. Accordingly food items were divided into cold, hot, windy, heavy and other characteristics. Cold food like curd with rice and turmeric were preferred during diarrhoea and dysentery, but hot food like millet and jaggery were avoided. During measles and typhoid only hot foods like lebta of millet was preferred to hasten the appearance of rashes. Information on such local maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illness in Thar desert will help in organizing nutrition and health education programs for this region.
G-13 Fotedar, R, Lakshminarayana, J, Ramnath, T and Singh, Madhu, B. Nutritional status, breast feeding and supplementation pattern among the working women of Jodhpur city. Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 183-89.
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A survey was conducted on 200 working women from urban area in Jodhpur, mainly to asses their health and nutritional status. Majority of the women reported that working outside home was mainly to improve their living standard. A large family size and low lieracy were found to be associated with low income group (LIG) when chi-square test was applied. A significantly low percentage of women were found discarding colostrums in well-to-do group (16.1 %) as compared to MIG (56.1 %) and LIG (59.3 %). Delayed supplementation beyond 1 year was observed for LIG (39.8 %) as compared to MIG (12.1 %) and well-to-do (6.5 %) families. Well to do group of working women (55 %) had better awareness for introducing supplements to infants, as compared to other two categories (LIG & MIG) who opted for traditional foods for supplementation. A significantly higher percentage (30.5%) of malnutrition (BMI<18.5) was seen in LIG as compared to women of other two categories. A lower percentage (20.0%) of obesity was seen in women of LIG as compared to other two groups. Prevalence of hypertension was quite low in all the groups. The working women contributed to the family income for improving the living standards, but the nutritional status, infant feeding practices and supplementary feeding differed significantly between the three categories.
G-14 Singh, Madhu B. Anthropometric assessment of the nutrition in female children of Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2004, 43: 199-03.
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A study was conducted in 18 villages of Thar Desert, categorized in three ecological regions i.e. Marusthali, Shekhawati and Luni Basin. Data on six anthropometric measurements, along with demography and socio-economic aspects studying 1132 female children which revealed that 94.6% mothers and 48.8% fathers of female children were found to be illiterate. Main occupation of 58.4 % parents was found to be agriculture. Means of height and weight show an increasing trend with age. Means of weight ranges from 14.4 Kg. (5 years) to 45.2 Kg. (17 years) in girls. Means of height ranges from 102.5 cm. (5 years) to 156 cm. (17 years) in girls. Means of weight and weight are very low in comparison to National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) (P< 0.01). These results will help in planning and programming nutritional intervention programs for this area for the female children.
G-15 Singh, Madhu B. Nutritional aspects of children residing in desert areas of Rajasthan. Proc. of Workshop on Research Methodologies for Micronutrients Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 2004, 21-25.
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Nutrition plays a vital role in the health of community, especially the malnutrition affecting young children. The study was carried out in 17 villages of desert districts of Rajasthan. A total of 538 households were covered out of which 834 under five children were examined. The results of the present study show that fewer than five rural children desert areas of Rajasthan suffer from PCM, vitamin A and B-complex deficiencies. Anthropometrically also, the desert children show growth retardation in comparison to NCHS standards. This may be attributed to the high percentage of illiteracy and low income of their parents. These results will be of utmost importance in planning and programming of nutrition intervention activities for desert areas.
G-16 Singh, Madhu B, Fotedar, R and Lakshminarayana, J. Occupational morbidities and their association with nutrition and environmental factors among textile workers of desert areas of Rajasthan, India. J. Occup. Health, 2005, 47: 371-77.
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In Rajasthan 21,000 workers, engaged in hand processors textile industries (process gray / raw cotton cloth), get exposed to hazards of the textile industries besides the harsh conditions of desert leading them to adverse effects on health. To explore the occupational health problems of the textile workers of desert and their association with nutrition and environmental factors investigations were carried-out in two districts viz. Jodhpur and Pali. Data on occupational disease conditions, environmental factors, nutritional deficiency signs and anemia were collected on a total of 1240 individuals out of which 845 were textile workers and 395 comparative group workers of same age groups. The main disease conditions i.e. Aches (19.4%), respiratory (12.1%) and fever (7.7%), were higher in textile workers than comparative group. Dyeing group workers suffered maximum (25.5%) from aches that too significantly higher than comparative group (11.6 %), may be due to higher percentage of severe anemia, besides physical labour. Printing and bleaching group workers were suffering from respiratory problems (15.5%) almost twice to that of comparative group, which may be due to more exposure to fumes of acids and use of chemical dyes. Housing conditions, Personal hygiene and education showed negative association with disease conditions but positive with anemia. The study revealed that in textile industry, disease conditions varies with the categorization of work. The findings suggest for the implementation of safety measures according to the type of work in textile industries, besides extension of health and nutrition education and welfare programmes.
G-17 Singh, Madhu B, Fotedar, R, Lakshminarayana, J and Anand, PK. Studies on the nutritional status of children aged 05 years in a drought-affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India. Pub. Health Nutrition, 2006. 9: 961-67.
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The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of drought on the nutritional status of pre-school children aged 05 years from a rural population in a desert area facing drought conditions very frequently. The sampling design for assessment was the three-stage sampling technique. The study was carried out in 24 villages belonging to six tehsils (sub-units of district) of Jodhpur District, a drought-affected desert district of western Rajasthan, during a drought in 2003. A total of 914 children were examined at household level, with nutritional status assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency. The results revealed growth retardation. Stunting (malnutrition of long duration) was observed in 53 % of children and underweight in 60 %. Wasting, an indicator of short-duration malnutrition was present in 28% of children. The extent of malnutrition was significantly higher in girls than boys (P, 0.05). Vitamin A and Bcomplex deficiencies were found in 0.7 and 3.0% of children, respectively. Prevalence of marasmus (proteinenergy malnutrition, PEM) was 1.7% (2.3% in boys and 1.1% in girls). Overall deficits in mean energy and protein intakes were very high (76 and 54%, respectively). Comparison of the present drought results with earlier studies in desert normal and desert drought conditions showed higher prevalence of PEM and higher dietary energy and protein deficiencies. The prevalence of wasting was high, greater than the cut-off point of 15% stated by World Health Organization to indicate that the severity of malnutrition is critical. PEM, vitamin A and B complex deficiencies and anaemia, along with dietary deficits of energy and protein, were observed to be higher than in non-desert areas. This may be due to the harsh environmental conditions in desert areas where drought occurs quite frequently and adversely affects the economy, largely by eroding the coping capacity and economic potential of the people as a result of heavy livestock losses and reduced harvests, leading to increased poverty and poor food intake of the inhabitants. Due to inadequate consumption of daily food the children were suffering from wasting and PEM. Efforts should be made to incorporate measures, such as ensuring the supply of adequate energy and protein to all age groups and especially pre-school children, into ongoing nutrition programs in order to improve the food security of local inhabitants in this area.
G-18 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J, Fotedar, R and Anand, PK. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition in under five children in drought affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India. J. Commun. Dis., 2006, 38: 88-96.
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The study was undertaken to asses the impact of drought on childhood illnesses and nutrition in under five children of rural population. The sampling design for assessment was three stage sampling technique. The study has been carried out in 24 villages belonging to 6 tehsils of Jodhpur district which was a drought affected desert district of Western Rajasthan in 2003. A total of 914 under five children (0-5 years) were examined for their childhood illnesses, malnutrition, dietary intake and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency. Childhood illnesses observed at the time of drought were respiratory (7.5 %), gastroentrological (7.5%), and 5.6% fever (viral, malaria and jaundice), higher in males than females. The extent of malnutrition was significantly higher in females than in males (p<0.01). Vitamin A & B complex deficiencies were 0.7% and 3% respectively. The protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was observed in 44.4%. Overall mean calorie and protein intake deficit was observed to be very high (76.0 & 54.0 %). The comparison of present drought results with earlier studies in normal and drought conditions showed higher prevalence of PEM and deficiencies of calories & proteins in their diet. Respiratory, gastroentrological and fever were main childhood illnesses observed and were higher in males at the time of drought. PEM, vitamin A & B- complex deficiencies, anemia along with deficit in calories and proteins in their diet was observed higher in present study as compared to non desert areas, which may be due to the harsh environmental conditions in desert areas and paucity in the consumption of daily food intake. Due to inadequate consumption of daily food, the children were suffering from PEM resulting in several childhood illnesses. Effective measures making availability of adequate calories and proteins to all age groups especially to under five children through the ongoing nutrition programs needs to be ensured.
H. Opium Addiction
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H-1 Mathur,  ML, Bansal, RK and Dixit,  AK. Prevalence of Opium Consumption in rural population of desert district Jodhpur. Indian J. Pub. Hlth., 1991, 4: 117-18.
Abstract
H-2 Mathur, ML. Management of Opium Addiction by Gradual Withdrawal Technique in a camp. A preliminary study. IJPSM, 1992, 2: 4-11.
Abstract
H-3 Mathur, ML and Mahapatra, A. A Retrospective study of Opium Addicts in De-addiction Camps and rural community. J.  Hum. Ecol., 1993, 4: 267-73.
Abstract
H-4 Ganguly, KK, Sharma, HK and Krishnamachari, KAVR. An ethnographic account of opium consumers of Rajasthan (India): socio-medical perspective. Addiction, 1995, 90: 9-21.
Abstract
H-5 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary, RC. Increased risk of Tuberculosis in Opium addicts. Ind. J. Med. Sci., 1996, 50: 365-67.
Abstract
H-6 Lakshminarayana, J, Misra, KN and Kalunda, RK. Opium consumption and Fecundability. Proc. Ann. Conf. ISMS, 2000, 277-88.
Abstract
Abstracts
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H-1 Mathur, ML, Bansal, RK and Dixit,  AK. Prevalence of Opium Consumption in rural population of desert district Jodhpur. Indian J. Pub. Hlth., 1991, 4: 117-18.
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Western part of Raiasthan is socio-culturally distinct entity having social sanction to use opium during religious and cultural gatherings. The study was carried out in 19 villages of Jodhpur district between Novemher 1986 and August 1987. Members of 511 households selected from these villages were interrogated. In this survey all the female subjects reported that they never consumed opium. There was no regular user of opium in people below fifteen years of age. Therefore, prevalence of opium users was calculated for males aged fifteen years or more. Those who consumed opium at least once every day were taken as regular users. All others were occasional users or non users. Frequency of opium consumption among occasional users varied from once in a month to once in a year. There were 2450 individuals aged fifteen years or more in selected 511 households, of which 1640 could be contacted and covered in the study. Prevalence of regular users of opium increases with age more so above age of 45 years. Overall prevalence of regular users was 7.1 percent in males aged fifteen years or more. Frequency of occasional users was 2.4 percent in age group 15 to 44 years but increased significantly thereafter. It was 16.4 percent in the age group 45 to 59 years and 11.5 percent in the age group 60 years and above. In all 25.9 percent males above 44 years age consumed opium. In the age group 5 to 14 years there was no regular user of opium but 3.3 percent consumed opium occasionally. All the consumers swallowed less than five grams of crude opium per day. Majority of opium users were heads of households. In case where other family member was an opium user the head of the household was also an opium user in majority of cases.
H-2 Mathur, ML. Management of Opium Addiction by Gradual Withdrawal Technique in a camp. A preliminary study. IJPSM, 1992, 2: 4-11.
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Crude opium is daily consumed by 7.1% of adult males in villages of desert district Jodhpur in Rajasthan. In present study an opium de-addiction camp was organized in a village for 34 addicts with mean age 47.3 10.4 years. Crude opium was substituted with camphorated tincture opium and dose of addiction was assessed in them. It ranged from 5 to 120 ml/day. A positive correlation was found between assessed dose of addiction and quantity of opium consumed as reported by the individual (r=0.912). Camphorated tincture opium was gradually withdrawn in a period spread over five days. Severity of withdrawal symptoms during gradual withdrawal and deaddiction was so less that admission in camp could have been avoided in 50.0% subjects, while 20.6% subjects actually attended their regular jobs and lived at their houses during deaddiction treatment. All 16 addicts with earlier experience of abrupt withdrawal reported that symptoms were less severe during gradual withdrawal than abrupt withdrawal. Severity of various withdrawal symptoms had significant positive correlation with dose of addiction (r=0.366 to 0.948) but had no correlation with duration of addiction (r= 0.487 to +0.395).
H-3 Mathur, ML and Mahapatra, A. A Retrospective study of Opium Addicts in De-addiction Camps and rural community. J.  Hum. Ecol., 1993, 4: 267-73.
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Drug abuse problem is worsening day by day specially in the Thar desert of Rajasthan. Generally people start opium at social gatherings as it is customary to offer. It affects the socio-economic conditions of family in long run. Though it is customary and a must to offer opium in all social functions, but opium business is done underground due to government laws. A method to tackle the problem is to organize de-addiction camps in the villages. The prevalence rate of opium addicts is never reported earlier. This study shows a prevalence rate of 13.4% in adult males of western Rajasthan. Caste wise addiction rate as reported is interesting and important to understand the pivotal position of caste in rural Rajasthan. They start opium above the age of 20 years and the consumption quantity gradually goes up. Generally around the age of 45 years they opt for de-addiction which is seldom available. Camp approach of de-addiction is felt to be the best method in the emic sense of problem. A social movement may bring about a change in the customs of the people of this region.
H-4 Ganguly, KK, Sharma, HK and Krishnamachari, KAVR. An ethnographic account of opium consumers of Rajasthan (India): socio-medical perspective. Addiction, 1995, 90: 9-21.
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This communication gives an ethnographic account of 200 opium users in selected villages of three Western districts in the desert state of Rajasthan. The region is known for its traditional use of raw opium in the form of amal or doda, due to its climate and difficult living conditions. The ethnographic information suggests that opium use is in many ways integrated into the socio-cultural fabric of the local community. Self-medication with opium mitigates various health problems and the drug is also used to relieve mental distress. Besides these uses for relief of distress, the drug is used recreationally and within settings which facilitate social bonding. The traditional roles ascribed to the use of this intoxicant cannot be dismissed when formulating long-term preventive and control measures.
H-5 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary, RC. Increased risk of Tuberculosis in Opium addicts. Ind. J. Med. Sci., 1996, 50: 365-67.
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In rural areas of desert of western Rajasthan crude opium is consumed with a social sanction by a notable proportion (7.1%) of adult males. It is believed that prevalence of opium addiction is high in TB cases as they may use it to suppress cough. Prevalence of opium addiction among TB cases from rural desert (16.1%) was compared with that in general population (7.1%) and the difference was found significant (X2 = 11.6, p > 0.001). The difference became a little more prominent after age adjustment. A case control analysis of matched pairs showed significant association between opium addiction and pulmonary tuberculosis (Odd's ratio = 2.61 and attributable risk = 0.099). Results were consistent in different age and ethnic groups. In cases with opium addiction, the addiction always preceded the pulmonary tuberculosis.
H-6 Lakshminarayana, J, Misra, KN and Kalunda, RK. Opium consumption and Fecundability. Proc. Ann. Conf. ISMS, 2000, 277-88.
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The opium and doda consumption in two desert districts namely Barmer and Bikaner of Rajasthan is very much prevalent due to their social customs during auspicious and vital events. An indirect effect of opium/doda consumption and becoming addicts over a period of time which affects the fertility of their wives. The median age of the consumers is 41.4 years and duration of consumption is 7.5 years. The indirect effect of on fertility and their fecundibility was estimated with the help of a probability model of closed birth interval technique suggested by srinivasan. The nature and variation of due to age, parity and duration was examined.
I. Occupational Health
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I-1 Mathur, ML Silicosis among sand stone quarry workers of a desert district Jodhpur. Ann. Nat.. Acad. Med. Sci. (India), 1996, 32: 113-18.
Abstract
I-2 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary, RC. Mortality Experience of Sand stone quarry workers of Jodhpur district. Lung India, 1996, 14: 66-68.
Abstract
I-3 Mathur, ML, Dixit, AK and Lakshminarayana, J. Correlates of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate : A study of Sand Stone Quarry  Workers in  Desert. Indian J. Physio. Pharmacol., 1996, 40: 340-44.
Abstract
I-4 Mathur. ML and Dixit, AK. A Study of Forced Vital Capacity and its predictors among the sand stone quarry workers.  Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 1999, 43: 347-54.
Abstract
I-5 Yadav, SP and Mathur, ML. A study of medico-social problems of sandstone quarry workers in the Jodhpur district of North-Western part of Rajasthan. Proc. Nat.l. Seminar on Small Scale Mining, 2001, 152-57.
Abstract
I-6 Mathur, ML and Yadav, SP. Wet Drlling as a measure of dust control in quarrying of sandstone. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Development in Machinery and Equipment for Dimensional Stone Mining, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap Agriculture University, Udaipur, 2003, 183-89.
Abstract
I-7 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J and Fotedar, R. Smoking pattern among the workers engaged in Textile industries of desert districts of Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Sci., 2004, 58: 443-45.
Abstract
I-8 Mathur, ML. Pattern and Predictors of Mortality in Sandstone Quarry workers. Ind. J. Occup. Env. Med., 2005, 9: 80-85.
Abstract
I-9 Mathur, ML, Haldiya, KR, Sachadev, R and Saiyed, HN. Risk of Pterygium in Salt Workers. Int. Ophthalmol., 2005, 26: 43-47.
Abstract
I-10 Haldiya, KR, Sachdev, R, Mathur, ML and Saiyed, HN. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Occupational Health Problems among Salt Workers Working in the Desert of Rajasthan, India. J. Occup. Health, 2005, 47:85-88.
Abstract
I-11 Yadav, SP and Mathur, ML. Knowledge and practices about malaria among the sandstone quarry workers in Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2005, 44: 65-70.
Abstract
I-12 Sachdev, R. Mathur, ML, Haldiya, KR and Saiyed, HN. Work related health problems in salt workers of Rajasthan, India. Ind. J. Occup. Env. Med., 2006, 10: 62-64.
Abstract
I-13 Yadav, SP, Mathur, ML and Dixit, AK. Knowledge and attitude towards tuberculosis among the sandstone quarry workers in desert part of Rajasthan, India. Ind. J. Tub., 2006. (In Press)
Abstract
Abstracts
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I-1 Mathur, ML Silicosis among sand stone quarry workers of a desert district Jodhpur. Ann. Nat. Acad. Med. Sci. (India), 1996, 32: 113-18.
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Four hundred sixteen sand stone quarry workers of Jodhpur district were screened for prevalence of silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis to estimate magnitude of the problem in this region. Their chest radiographs were taken at 300 mA and were read according to Intemational Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, 1980. Concentration of total and respirable dust in quarries was measured. Chronic symptoms persistent for six or more months were cough (49.5%), expectoration (42.1%) dyspnoea (41.1%) and pain chest (24.5%). Radiological opacities suggestive of silicosis were seen in 9.9% radiographs, and radiological signs of pulmonary tuberculosis were seen in 15.6% radiographs. Prevalence of both conditions increased with duration of work. Examination of sputum smear of subjects with symptoms of tuberculosis revealed 3.6% prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed cases of tuberculosis. Minimum concentration of respirable quartz was 8893 micron/m3 in air samples collected from breathing zone of quarry workers, while WHO suggests a safe upper limit of 40 microns/m3. The study indicates a considerable prevalence of silicosis in desert but of lesser magnitude and severity as compared to other parts of India.
I-2 Mathur, ML and Chaudhary RC. Mortality Experience of Sand stone quarry workers of Jodhpur district. Lung India, 1996, 14: 66-68.
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A case control study of deceased quarry workers and controls comparing their age at the time of death was carried out. It showed that the mean age at death was 49.3 12.1 years in quarry workers and 60.0 14.4 years in non-worker controls. In another prospective study, a sample of 314 quarry workers and 40 ex-workers was followed up for a period of 17.4 7.2 months to study their mortality rate. This study demonstrated that there was excess mortality in quarry works (Stanardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) = 1184, 95% confidence Interval 0.79 to 2.90). Mortality was higher in those with opacities suggestive of silicosis in chest skiagrams (age adjusted death rate 66.3 per thousand per year and SMR = 6,95), than in non-silicotics (age adjusted death rate 19.97 per 1000 per year and SMR = 1.63). Workers with pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly higher mortality than other quarry workers. Even in the absence of tuberculosis, mortality was more in silicotics (age adjusted death rate 24.9 per thousand per year, SMR 2.8).
I-3 Mathur, ML, Dixit, AK and Lakshminarayana, J. Correlates of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: A study of Sand Stone Quarry Workers in Desert. Indian J. Physio. Pharmacol., 1996, 40: 340-44.
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The study assesses the relationship between selected demographic, anthropometeric, radiological, work-history and smoking-history related variables with Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) in a sample of 286 sand stone quarry workers from a desert region. Age, height, profusion of radiological opacities, age at beginning of work, duration of work and duration of smoking were found significantly associated with PEFR while duration of exposure to dust, nature of job and number of biries smoked per day failed to establish their significant association. Mean PEFR of these workers was found significantly lower than the same among healthy adults from the study area. The subset of predictors of PEFR only included age, height and profusion of radiological opacities as identified by multiple regression analysis.
I-4 Mathur, ML and Dixit, AK. A Study of Forced Vital Capacity and its predictors among the sand stone quarry workers.  Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 1999, 43: 347-54.
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The study assesses the relationship of selected demographic, anthropometric, radiological, work-history and smoking-history related variables with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) in a sample of 168 sand stone quarry workers in a desert environment. Except the variables related to smoking behaviour, all are found significantly associated with FVC. The predictors of FVC screened through the multiple regression analysis were age, weight, and height, profusion of opacities in chest X-ray and duration of work. Mean FVC was found significantly lower as compared to the healthy adult population. On an average FVC% was 90% of predicted (Percentage deviation of 10%). A clear increasing trend in FVC% along age/duration of work was observed among the young workers, which may be due to building of muscles in this job. Percentage deviation of 20% or more in FVC was significantly associated with presence of radiological opacities suggestive of silicosis (odds Ratio = 3.3). The diagnostic utility of the same is also assessed.
I-5 Yadav, SP and Mathur, ML. A study of medico-social problems of sandstone quarry workers in the Jodhpur district of North-Western part of Rajasthan. Proc. Natl. Seminar on Small Scale Mining. 2001, 152-157.
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Sand stone mining is the one of the important source of earning livelihood of the population in the Jodhpur district. These stone quarries are operated openly and 95 % of the work is done manually in very small units as an unorganized sector. More than 50,000 workers are working in it without using any mining safely measures. Therefore, this study was undertaken to know the medico-social problems of the sand quarry workers in Jodhpur district. Two hundred ninety two workers were selected randomly. Interview technique was used for the data collection on the pre-tested schedules. More than 90 % workers were bvelonging to the rural area. About one third workers come for work and go back to their places daily. Rest of them lived on the work site or near by. Majority of them were Hindus and belonging to schedule castes and schedule tribes. About 80 were illiterate and belonging to low socio-economic class. Almost three fourth had no alternative other than to work in quarries till they could. Most of them did not feel concerned about occupational health hazards, safety measures, surrounding polluted environment impact etc. Intervention programme were required but need was not felt by the workers due to ignorance.
I-6 Mathur, ML and Yadav, SP. Wet Drlling as a measure of dust control in quarrying of sandstone. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Development in Machinery and Equipment for Dimensional Stone Mining, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap Agriculture University, Udaipur, 2003, 183-89.
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Results of the study indicated that Mechanical Dry Drilling Units used in sandstone quarries can be locally converted into usable Wet Drilling Units. This conversion costs Rs. 3000-4000 per unit. The generation of air-borne dust could be significantly reduced by making the drilling process wet.
I-7 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J and Fotedar, R. Smoking pattern among the workers engaged in Textile industries of desert districts of Rajasthan. Indian J. Med. Sci,. 2004, 58: 443-45.
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In Rajasthan nearly 21,000 workers are engaged in various types of activities in textile industries located in desert districts of Rajasthan. Due to higher stress of work, most of the labors start smoking at an early age which lead them to various hazards of smoking in addition to their exposure to harsh conditions of desert along with hazards of the textile industry. The present study was carried out with the aim to study the pattern of smoking habits among the textile workers in desert areas. 1240 individuals were interviewed out of which 845 were textile workers (33 textile industries selected randomly from Jodhpur and Pali district) and 395 individuals were from comparative group of same age group, not involved in textile work and living in and around the textile industries. Random Sampling Technique was used for the selection of individuals. Percentage of smoking was observed very high in textile workers i.e. 51.4 %. The percentage of smoking Beeri and consuming Gutkawas found higher in the textile workers in comparison to comparative group. In early age groups, 54 percent textile workers had habit of smoking which may be due to their low education as 55.1% of smokers were educated only upto primary standard. Low education and onset of working in early age groups in textile workers may be responsible for their unawareness regarding the various hazards of the smoking in relation to their health. So there is a strong need of anti smoking campaigns to be organised for the textile workers to change their attitude towards smoking which in turn will be beneficial for their health.
I-8 Mathur, ML. Pattern and Predictors of Mortality in Sandstone Quarry workers. Ind. J. Occup. Env. Med., 2005, 9: 80-85.
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Context: Study of silicosis was conducted in 1992-94, which included a sample of 458 sandstone quarry workers of Jodhpur. Aims: To find out pattern and predictors of mortality in sandstone quarry workers. Methods: Houses of all workers were visited and the workers status was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Standardised Mortality Ratio (for all causes of death) was calculated. Cox proportional hazard model was applied to study the association of different variables with mortality. Results: Total 97.8% workers could be followed, of whom, 10.9% had died (SMR=1.72; 95%CI 1.23 to 2.19). The average age at time of death of the deceased was 51.8 12.5 years. Mortality was higher among silicotics (SMR=2.54; 95%CI 1.43 to 3.66), smokers (SMR=1.83; 95%CI 1.27 to 2.39) and those showing mixed abnormality in pulmonary function test (SMR=2.73; 95%CI 1.24 to 4.21). In multivariate Cox Proportional Hazard model, restriction in spirometery (HR=13.95; 95%CI 9.14 to 21.29), longer duration (>15 years) of working in quarries (HR=7.29; 95%CI 5.19 to 10.24), chronic dyspnoea (HR=6.48; 95%CI 4.70 to 8.95), silicosis (HR=6.03; 95%CI 4.85 to 7.51), BMI<1.75 (HR=3.50; 95%CI 2.78 to 4.41) and chronic pain chest (HR=3.28; 95%CI 2.51 to 4.28) emerged as significant predictors of all cause mortality. Conclusion: Sandstone quarry workers die at younger age. In absence of certified cause of death, these predictors suggest that silicosis, COPD, cancer lung and tuberculosis might be underlying causes of higher mortality. The study underlines the need for adopting measures of prevention fine dust exposure of workers.
I-9 Mathur, ML, Haldiya, KR, Sachdev, R and Saiyed, HN. Risk of Pterygium in Salt Workers. Int. Ophthalmol., 2005, 26: 43-47.
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To find out if exposure to direct and reflected sunlight in brine pans (ground water rich in salt, kept in wide pans in open air for salt manufacturing), increases the risk of pterygium in exposed salt workers. It was a cross sectional observational study, in which 865 salt workers were examined in the Free Occupational Health Check-up camps held near salt sites; 304 persons from the same area engaged in other work were examined as controls. The prevalence of pterygium in different age groups was compared between brine workers (who worked in the brine pans), dry salt workers, (who were engaged in the loading, weighing, milling, packing or transportation of the dry salt but never worked in brine pans) and non-salt-worker controls. The prevalence of pterygium was significantly higher in brine workers (21.0%) as compared to dry salt workers (9.1%) (Yates corrected X2=23.45, p=0.00000) and non-saltworker controls (9.4%) (Yates corrected X2= 15.69, p=0.00007). It increased with age and duration of employment in the salt industry. Brine workers have a hjgher risk of developing pterygium probably due to their exposuret o sunlight reflected both from the surface of brine and from the surface of salt crystals.
I-10 Haldiya, KR, Sachdev, R, Mathur, ML and Saiyed, HN. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Occupational Health Problems among Salt Workers Working in the Desert of Rajasthan, India. J. Occup. Health, 2005, 47:85-88
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Workers in the salt industry are exposed to direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine. To assess their awareness, attitude and practices related to occupational health problems, 205 salt workers were interviewed about health hazards and problems related to their working conditions, usage of protective measures and suggestions for their improvisation. The brine workers had a fair knowledge of their occupational health problems (98.7%), protective measures (100.0%) and their benefits (100.0%) as compared to non brine workers for whom these figures were 89.0%, 85.8% and 78.7% respectively. The brine workers (29.5%) and non brine workers (31.5%) used unconventional measures to prevent contact with salty water, salt dust, raw salt and glare. There was a huge gap between their knowledge and practice with protective devices, though they suggested improvements in protective devices to increase their acceptability.
I-11 Yadav, SP and Mathur, ML. Knowledge and practices about malaria among the sandstone quarry workers in Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2005, 44: 65-70.
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Malaria is a common parasitic disease transmitted through mosquitoes. It affects health as well as economic condition of victims. Following rains, water is accumulated in quarries which become breeding grounds for mosquitoes round the year. This study was conducted on the sandstone quarry workers for determining their level of awareness and practices about malaria. It revealed that majority (79.2%) of the sandstone quarry workers were below the age of 40 years and 71.1% were illiterate. In all 33% of respondents were aware of the cause of malaria as mosquito bite. Awareness about causation of disease increased with the literacy status, being 22.5% in illiterates and 88.5% in those with middle school or higher education. Nearly 40% of the respondents attributed high fever with chills and rigor as the most important symptom of malaria. Less than 49% of workers knew that mosquito bred in water while only 22.2% knew mosquito breeding could be prevented. This knowledge was more prevalent among educated workers as compared to illiterates. Our study has shown that the awareness about the cause and practices of prevention of malaria were just fair among the sandstone quarry workers and needs to be strengthened.
I-12 Sachdev, R. Mathur, ML, Haldiya, KR and Saiyed, HN. Work related health problems in salt workers of Rajasthan, India. Ind. J. Occup. Env. Med., 2006, 10: 62-64.
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About 20,000 men and women are engaged in the production of salt in Rajasthan alone, which is an important unorganized sector. The salt workers are exposed to adversities of environmental conditions as well as salt in the environment. There is a lack of information about their occupational health problems. The study aimed to identify work related health problems experienced by the salt workers. Data were collected in the health camps held near salt sites. Workers of salt manufacturing units were invited for their free health examination. Analysis of the data was carried out using Epi-Info 2002 software. Prevalence of ophthalmological symptoms was 60.7%, that of dermatological symptoms was 43.8% and symptoms like headache, giddiness, breathlessness, muscular and joint pains were experienced by 52.1% salt workers. The ophthalmological problems were most common, probably due to irritation by direct sunlight and its glare caused by salt crystals and brine as well as irritation caused by fine salt particles suspended in the air of the working environment. Traumatic ulcers, dermatitis, muscular and joint pains, headache and giddiness were other more common symptoms observed among the workers. Prevalence of hypertension was 12.0%. Looking at large number of salt workers exposed to salt and facing occupational health problems, there is a need for developing a mechanism for prevention of these problems in them.
I-13 Yadav, SP, Mathur, ML and Dixit, AK. Knowledge and attitude towards tuberculosis among the sandstone quarry workers in desert part of Rajasthan, India. Ind. J. Tub., 2006. (In Press)
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Present study was conducted to know the knowledge and attitude of sand stone quarry workers of Jodhpur towards tuberculosis. Nineteen sandstone quarrying sites were selected randomly in Jodhpur district from which 376 quarry workers were interviewed who consented to participate in the study. Their literacy rate was 28.5%. More than half (50.5%) per cent had heard about tuberculosis from neighbours followed by 42.6% from friends and 37.2% family members. Only 1.6% knew that tuberculosis was caused by germs and 45.2 % respondants had a misconconception that TB was a hereditary adisease. Literates were more aware than illiterates about symptoms of tuberculosis. Only 6.9% knew about the need of treatment for 6-8 months and 0.8% knew about the BCG vaccine for prevention of tuberculosis. Tendency to discriminate TB patients was evident as 72.6% respondents opined to isolate TB patients from the family and 80.6% opined to avoid food sharing with these patients. Extensive health education directed towards bringing a change in attitude among sandstone quarry workers is needed to create awareness and remove myths about tuberculosis in such groups of people in the community.
J. Public Health
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J-1 Mathur, ML, Bansal, RK, Rajlakshmi, K, Dixit, AK and Ramnath, T. Morbidity pattern of rural population of a typical desert district of Rajasthan: Findings of a preliminary study. IJPSM, 1990, 21: 41-47.
Abstract
J-2 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Lakshminarayana, J and Chand, Ramesh.  Fertility and family planning practices in the villages of Jaipur district - A preliminary survey.  Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1991, 30: 181-88.
Abstract
J-3 Ganguly, KK, Yadav, SP, Mahapatra, A, Dam, PK and Krishnamachari, KAVR. A community based study of the sociological aspects of night blindness in the desert region of Rajasthan. Ind. J. Soc. Work, 1992, 63: 45-49.
Abstract
J-4 Joshi, V. Dracunculiasis in Jodhpur district: Studies on some epidemiological and parasitological aspects. J. Commun. Dis., 1992, 24: 191-93.
Abstract
J-5 Krishnamachari, KAVR and Yadav, SP. Use of camel cart for health care delivery in remote desert habitations. Annals of Arid Zone, 1992, 31: 151-52.
Abstract
J-6 Yadav, SP. A sociological study of leprosy patients in the Thar Desert. Ind. J. Prev. Soc. Med., 1992, 23: 37-42.
Abstract
J-7 Dam PK, Mahapatra, A, Ganguly, KK, Dixit, AK, Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J, Sapra, GP and Krishnamachari, KAVR. Socio-Demographic profile of the tribal population in three districts of Rajasthan. The Eastern Anthropologist, 1993, 45: 241-53.
Abstract
J-8 Singh, Karam V. Ixodid ticks infesting some  domestic animals in rural areas of Jaipur district (Rajasthan). Indian J. Parasitol., 1993, 16: 173-76.
Abstract
J-9 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Lakshminarayana, J and Chand, Ramesh. Social and demographic profile of selected villages in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 103-08.
Abstract
J-10 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J and Haldiya, KR. KAP study regarding common diseases among rural women inhabiting some semi-arid areas of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1993, 32: 113-14.
Abstract
J-11 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Studies on the feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filasriasis, in a desert district of Rajasthan. Geobios new Reports, 1995, 14: 13-16.
Abstract
J-12 Singh, Madhu B and Singh, Karam V. Studies on the role of demographic and socio-economic factors in the distribution of important vectors in a semi-arid area of Rajasthan.  Proc. Intl. Symp. Vect. Vectorborne Dis., 1995, 2: 193-97.
Abstract
J-13 Ramnath, T and Mathur, ML. An approach to  evaluate a possible bias in Indian Well to do standard weight values and its implication on interpretation of survey results. J. Tropical Pediatr., 1996, 42: 376-78.
Abstract
J-14 Singh, Karam V and Singh, Madhu B. Studies on the role of socio-demographic factors in the distribution of rodents in a semi-arid area of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1996, 35: 69-72.
Abstract
J-15 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Chaudhary, RC. Knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding AIDS in semi-arid area of Rajasthan. J . Commun. Dis., 1997, 29: 139-44.
Abstract
J-16 Bansal, SK. Prevalence of some major disease vectors and their control in semi-arid areas of the Thar desert. Proc. Acad. Environ. Biol., 1998, 7: 17-25.
Abstract
J-17 Tyagi, BK, Yadav, SP, Dam, PK and Ramnath, T. Enhanced breeding of malaria/dengue fever transmitting vector mosquitoes (Anopheles stephensi List, Aedies aegypti Linn.) in multi storey buildings of Jodhpur Township: Prospective health problems and remedies. Proc. UGC National Seminar on Multi storey buildings of growing towns problems and remedies, Jodhpur. 1999, 373-80.
Abstract
J-18 Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. Responses of women with malaria history in relation to family management and support in the rural Thar Desert, India. Under constant threat of increasing mosquitogenic conditions. Ann. Med. Entomol., 1999, 9: 32-41.
Abstract
J-19 Yadav, SP, Tyagi, BK, Dam, PK and Ramnath, T. On some socio-economic aspects of inhabitants of multistory buildings of Jodhpur city. Proc., UGC National Seminar on Multi storey buildings of growing towns problems and remedies, Jodhpur. 1999, 53-58.
Abstract
J-20 Dam, PK, Ramnath, T, Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. Use of ethnomedicinal practices in the Thar Desert, North Western, India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 2000, 24: 303-18.
Abstract
J-21 Mathur, ML, Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. A Study of an Epidemic of Acute Respiratory Disease in Jaipur town. J. Postgrad. Med., 2000, 46: 88-90.
Abstract
J-22 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Current insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis, against few conventional and more potent insecticides in some desert and non-desert parts of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2001, 40: 79-84.
Abstract
J-23 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Toxicological evaluation of some organophosphorus compounds against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in Bikaner district, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 169-73.
Abstract
J-24 Agrawal, RP, Singh, G, Nayak, KC, Kochar, DK, Sharma, RC, Beniwal, R, Rastogi, P and Gupta, R. Prevalence of diabetes in camel-milk consuming Raica Rural community of north-west Rajasthan. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Countries, 2004, 24: 109-14.
Abstract
J-25 Dewan, A, Bhatnagar, VK, Mathur, ML, Chakma, T, Kashyap, R, Sadhu, HG, Sinha, SN and Saiyed, HN. Repeated Episodes of Endosulfan Poisoning. J. Toxicol-Clin. Toxic., 2004, 42: 363-69.
Abstract
J-26 Sachdev, R, Haldiya, KR and Dixit, AK. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Kumhar Community of Western Rajasthan. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2005, 53: 101-03.
Abstract
J-27 Dixit, AK, Anand, PK and Sharma, RC. A study of district level development factors influencing infant mortality rate and life expectancy in the Indian Thar Desert. Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health, 2006, 5: 42-45.
Abstract
J-28 Purohit, SD, Purohit, V and Mathur, ML. A Clinical scoring system as useful as FNAC in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in HIV positive patients. Curr. HIV Res., 2006, 4: 459-62.
Abstract
Abstracts
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J-1 Mathur, ML, Bansal, RK, Rajlakshmi, K, Dixit, AK and Ramnath, T. Morbidity pattern of rural population of a typical desert district of Rajasthan: Findings of a preliminary study. IJPSM, 1990, 21: 41-47.
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A cross sectional health survey was carried out in 19 villages of Jodhpur, a desert district of Rajasthan in 1986-87 to find out important morbidity conditions prevalent there. Prevalence of different conditions like vitamin A deficiency (10.1%), vitamin B complex deficiency (6.5%), dental caries (37.3%), dental mottlinig (9.7%), conjunctivitis (3.9%), upper respiratory infections (4.7%), bronchitis (1.9%), gastric acidity (1.6%), multiple boils (3.7%), and fungal infections of skin (1.7%) are reported. This showed nutritional deficiency disorders, respiratory diseases, gastric acidity and skin infections were major problems. However keratomalacia, scurvy, diarrhea and gastro-intestinal worms were not reported as significant problems.
J-2 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Lakshminarayana, J and Chand, Ramesh.  Fertility and family planning practices in the villages of Jaipur district - A preliminary survey.  Rajasthan Medical Journal. 1991, 30: 181-88.
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The present study was carried out in 391 HHS of 38 villages of different tehsils of Jaipur district following PPS sampling method. Result showed that mean ages at menarche and cohabitation were 14.3 yrs 15. 3 yrs respectively. As many as 74 % women had cohabitation at ages between 14-17 yrs. Age at cohabitation and age at first delivery were found to occur at an early age in comparison to minimum marriage age legalized by the government thereby increasing reproductive age group which in turn will increase fertility rate. Only 23.8 % of eligible couple had accepted a permanent method family planning however other family planning practices were almost negligible. This may be due to illiteracy, unawareness of health education and family welfare programs. There is need of intervention by way of abolishing illiteracy, imparting health education and extending knowledge regarding family planning practices.
J-3 Ganguly, KK, Yadav, SP, Mahapatra, A, Dam, PK and Krishnamachari, KAVR. A community based study of the sociological aspects of night blindness in the desert region of Rajasthan. Ind. J. Soc. Work, 1992, 63: 45-49.
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Night blindness is very common in western Rajasthan and the scarcity of leafy vegetables in the region increases its occurrence. Strong familial and societal bonds help overcome the agony of the affliction. While children suffering from night blindness get sympathy from the society, adult women do not and adult men seem to ignore the affliction. Ignorance and laxity compound the situation which sometimes has a bearing on the society. A concerted effort is needed to over come the problem.
J-4 Joshi, V. Dracunculiasis in Jodhpur district: Studies on some epidemiological and parasitological aspects. J. Commun. Dis., 1992, 24: 191-93.
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The aetiology of dracunculiasis differs substantially in arid and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan, where ponds and step-wells are the major source of drinking water. Studies were conducted for three successive years from 1989-1991. The study revealed that during 1989 and 1990 the no. of cases were 54 and 106 respectively. Density of cyclops, water temperature & pH and rainfall were found to be the major factors responsible for the prevalence of no. of cases of guineaworm disease during different years.
J-5 Krishnamachari, KAVR and Yadav, SP. Use of camel cart for health care delivery in remote desert habitations. Annals of Arid Zone, 1992, 31: 151-52.
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Villages in the desert region of Western Rajasthan are characterized by scattered households which are clustered into small individual groups called Dhanies (hamlet). The rural population residing in the Dhanis need a type of health care delivery system which can reach them when needed t their far off habitats. Desert conditions put up a number of constraints to the providers of preventive health care. The principal among which are, a) the inaccessibility of the facility, b) the low population density of the region, and c) the scattered Dhani system. The distances to be covered between Dhanis are often considerable and this adversely affects the delivery of health care to the residents. During summers, dust storms often prevent the operation of the health care delivery system, the major components of which are prevention of disease and administration of prophylactic measures. There is, therefore, a need to look for alternative system to existing health care delivery system which is cost effective, more practical and locally acceptable as well as operation in the desert in all seasons. Strategics meant to vector as many persons as possible under the preventive programmes should aim at a model which could be developed easily, utilizaing locally available resources and which can allow the health personnel to have closer contacts with the people in remote areas in the desert. With this in view a concept of Camel Health Cart was developed and its feasibility and operationability tested in the desert and found suitable.
J-6 Yadav, SP. A sociological study of leprosy patients in the Thar Desert. IJPSM, 1992, 23: 37-42.
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A study was conducted on beggars with leprosy at Ramdeora in Jaisalmer district to find out the Sociological factors which affect rehabilitation of leprosy patients in the society. This study covers some important sociological aspects like knowledge about causation of disease, age at onset, treatment, reason for leaving their place of origin, desire to go back to their previous society, reason for unwillingness to join the main stream of society and communication with their families, Control group was also taken in the study for making comparison; 84.7% leprosy patients were Hindu, 72.5 % leprosy patients got disease in the early part of life (<30Years). Majority (68.4%) of the cases had given history of contacts with a case of leprosy with in the family; among 90.0% leprosy was the main cause for uprooting the leprosy patients from their residence. The Social prejudice and deformities due to disease are responsible for worsening social lie. The study suggests for social rehabilitation rather then encouragement of leprosy colonies, prevention of destitution on family level and health education at community level to remove social stigma.
J-7 Dam. PK, Mahapatra, A, Ganguly, KK, Dixit, AK, Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J, Sapra, GP and Krishnamachari, KAVR. Socio-Demographic profile of the tribal population in three districts of Rajasthan. The Eastern Anthropologist, 1993, 45: 241-53.
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The socio demographic aspects of the tribal population inhabiting Banswara, Dungarpur and Sirohi with special reference to their health and nutritional status have been summarized in this paper. 7549 individuals residing 1,319 households belonging to 49 villages of three districts were covered under socio demographic study. Out of this sample, diet survey pertaining consumption pattern of 293 households was conducted that reveals the main cereals consumed in three districts were Maize and wheat, whereas it was Bajra among the Girasia tribes of Sirohi district. In Dungarpur the average cereal and millet intake (gm/day) was consistently higher in all age groups of male and female than Sirohi district. However for male preschool children of Dungarpur the intake was lower. Age at first marriage (since remarriage is permitted) in all the three districts were 15 years and upwards. Percentage of widowers was uniformly reported to be lower than the widows in the age group of 25-44 yrs. amongst the females of 45+ age group around 30% were widows whereas females belonging to reproductive age group (15-44 years) showed lower trend towards existing widowhood. Such indication supports the practice of widow remarriage and polygamy in them. The Joint families constituted 40% of the total families in Banswara and Dungarpur while in Sirohi the percentage was limited to 20% leading to the emerging trend of more and more nuclear families.
J-8 Singh, Karam V. Ixodid ticks infesting some  domestic animals in rural areas of Jaipur district (Rajasthan). Indian J. Parasitol., 1993.16: 173-76.
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Six ixodid species (Hyalomma anatolicum, H. dromedarii, H. kumari, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. haemaphysaloides & R. turanicus) were recorded from domestic animals and small mammals in rural areas of semi-arid region of Rajasthan. H. anatolicum was found to be the most abundant species and recorded throughout the year. Maximum number of ixodid species was found on goats and rodents. Nymphs were encountered only from May to October with peak prevalence in July. Coinciding with the nymphal prevalence the adult population also started building up from May with peak in September and then decreasing from October onwards and their number remained almost static from November to April.
J-9 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR, Lakshminarayana, J and Chand, Ramesh. Social and demographic profile of selected villages in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Rajasthan Medical Journal, 1993, 32: 103-08.
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The present study was carried out in 391 HHS of 38 villages of different tehsils of Jaipur district following PPS sampling method. Majority of crops grown were wheat, bajara, moth and gram dal. The major source of irrigation was well with well motor engine. The majority of the HHs (85.9 %) brought their drinking water from outside the house. More than 90 % percent of the families possessed live stocks and 17 % of the families kept their animals in their house.. The commonest material possessed by households was bicycle and radio / tapes. The major occupation was agriculture and labourer.
J-10 Singh, Madhu B, Lakshminarayana, J and Haldiya, KR. KAP study regarding common diseases among rural women inhabiting some semi-arid areas of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1993, 32: 113-14.
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In this study 391 elderly women inhabiting semi arid areas of Rajasthan were interviewed and the information is gathered on their knowledge, attitude and practices of common diseases. It is revealed from the study that none of the women observed in the category of Knows all about the causes, preventive and curative measures of different diseases. Overall knowledge and awareness of different diseases is very poor except Fever, Diarrhoea and Malaria indicating a need of health education programs to be organized at village level by health workers.
J-11 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Studies on the feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filasriasis, in a desert district of Rajasthan. Geobios new Reports, 1995, 14: 13-16.
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The studies revealed two peaks of feeding activities i.e. from 22-23 h and 1-2 h, in urban areas, whereas, in rural areas only one peak between 20-21 h, with constantly high feeding activities during early night hours. The peaks of feeding, especially urban areas coincide with the presence of microfilarae in the peripheral blood.
J-12 Singh, Madhu B and Singh, Karam V. Studies on the role of demographic and socio-economic factors in the distribution of important vectors in a semi-arid area of Rajasthan.  Proc. Intl. Symp. Vect. Vector-borne Dis., 1995, 2:193-97.
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Studies on the role of demographic and socio-economic factors in the distribution of mosquito, sand flies and ticks conducted in 38 villages of Jaipur district of Rajasthan revealed that factors like type of family and monthly income of family independently do not influence the vector distribution. However, role of type of house in the distribution of mosquitoes (p<0.01), and sand flies (p<0.01), animal keeping in the distribution of ticks (p<0.01), distance of source of drinking water in the distribution of mosquitoes (p<0.01), sand flies (p<0.01), and ticks (p<0.01) was found statistically significant. Education of the head of the household played significant role in the distribution of the mosquitoes (p<0.01). The percentage of mosquitoes and sand fly positive households was found directly proportional to the educational qualification of the head of the households, whereas, in case of ticks inversely proportional.
-J13 Ramnath, T and Mathur, ML. An approach to  evaluate a possible bias in Indian well to do standard weight values and its implication on interpretation of survey results. J. Tropical Pediatr., 1996, 42: 376-78.
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The results of different nutrition surveys carried out in India during 1976-1980 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB), Hyderabad, clearly indicated that, among reschool age children, girls often fared better compared to boys with regard to body weight. In these surveys, Hyderabad well-to-do standards have been in use, but it is well documented that, generally, in India girls often have higher morbidity and mortality compared to boys. In view of the above, it is hypothesized that the values quoted for girls in Hyderabad standard weight values are possibly on the low side. A novel approach was developed and the above hypothsis was tested with the help of lower percentiles. Analysis suggests that there exists a bias and the values quoted for girls in Hyderabad well-to-do standard are certainly on the lower side. Hence, as recommended by WHO, there is a need to adopt NCHS standard values in assessment of the nutritional status of preschool children instead of local standards.
J-14 Singh, Karam V and Singh, Madhu B. Studies on the role of socio-demographic factors in the distribution of rodents in a semi-arid area of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 1996, 35: 69-72.
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The socio-demographic factors affect the distribution of rodents (Rattus rattus & Mus musculus). In the rural areas of a semi-arid district (Jaipur: Rajasthan) the type of family (P<0.05), mode of animal keeping (P<0.01) and income of family (P<0.01) played significant role in their distribution. The difference among type of houses was not statistically significant. The role of education of head of family was found to be inversely proportional. Income-wise, medium income group had higher number of houses positive for rodents. Animal keeping inside the human dwellings adversely affected the rodent distribution.
J-15 Singh, Madhu B, Haldiya, KR and Chaudhary, RC. Knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding AIDS in semi-arid area of Rajasthan. J. Commun. Dis., 1997, 29: 139-44.
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A total of 792 women from 3 hospitals of Jaipur were surveyed to asses and compare their knowledge and attitudes regarding various aspects of AIDS. Observations revealed that level of knowledge was significantly higher in pregnant women from upper income group than low income group (P<0.05). The misconceptions regarding various aspects of AIDS viz. symptoms and signs, transmission and prevention and opinion towards the AIDS patients, indicate there is strong need of AIDS education campaign in pregnant women too.
J-16 Bansal, SK. Prevalence of some major disease vectors and their control in semi-arid areas of the Thar Desert. Proc. Acad. Environ. Biol., 1998, 7: 17-25.
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The harsh and extreme environmental conditions of the Thar desert have a direct bearing on the prevalence and seasonal distribution of major disease vectors. Two major groups of mosquitoes viz. culicines and anophelines have generally been found to breed in different breeding habitats. Culicines are represented by Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. raptor, Cx. sitiens, Aedes aegypti, Ae.vittatus and Ae. W-albus. The anophelines are represented by Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. subpictus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris and An. pulcherrimus. Sandflies are represented by two genera viz. Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. P. papatasi is responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis or oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Sergentomyia is represented by S. Punjabensis, S. babu babu, S. Baghdadis, S. clydei and S. christophersi. Genus Sergentomyia is responsible for some of the viral sandfly fevers in the country. Cyclops belonging to class crustacean are responsible for the transmission of dracunculiasis in the desert caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a helminth parasite. However, the important step is the control of these vectors. The control methods should be which are publicly accepted and environmentally suitable. Chemical control suffers with the problem of environmental pollution and insecticide resistance. DDT and dieldrin are less effective, although some organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids do have some promising future. Biological control with larvivorous fishes like Gambusia affinis and Lebistes reticulates is a good alternative. However, some bacterial preparations like Bacillus sphaericus and B. thuringiensis have been proved to be effective larvicides and environmentally eco-friendly. Environmental control and its management like filling, leveling and drainage of breeding places especially in the Indira Gandhi canal command areas, where there is a large scale seepage; proper disposal of sewage, routine emptying of water containers, desilting of the canal beds and removal of aquatic weeds like water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from canal and lakes based on source reduction can prove useful methods in semi-arid areas. Finally, the integrated vector control approach is the most acceptable approach. Lastly, good vector management can be brought about by geed environmental management and an environmentally acceptable control strategy.
J-17 Tyagi, BK, Yadav, SP, Dam, PK and Ramnath, T. Enhanced breeding of malaria/dengue fever transmitting vector mosquitoes (Anopheles stephensi List, Aedies aegypti Linn.) in multi storey buildings of Jodhpur Township: Prospective health problems and remedies. Proc. UGC National Seminar on Multi storey buildings of growing towns problems and remedies, Jodhpur. 1999, 373-380.
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Jodhpur is presently amongst the fastest growing cities in the Rajasthan State. Already there is more than three times the population size compared to that of 1981. The largely unplanned growth of the township in various walks of life has put an unprecedently high load on the sanitary and hygiene needs of the city dwellers living in all types of abodes ranging from sprawling bungalows in posh colonies and multi storey buildings to the temporary shanties and hutments in low-lying areas. This situation has unwillingly created conditions conducive for copius breeding of the major malaria and dengue vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively, causing great intranquality and nuissance to the citizens. There is therefore, immediate need to re-organize the restructuring plans of the Jodhpur township from health point-of-view and to provide knowledge to deep these nefarious mosquito vectors at bay.
J-18 Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. Responses of women with malaria history in relation to family management and support in the rural Thar Desert, India. Under constant threat of increasing mosquitogenic conditions. Ann. Med. Entomol., 1999, 9: 32-41.
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During malaria epidemics in 1992-1994 in the Thar Desert, a total of 647 women with is story of malaria in past one year were interrogated in four desert villages, Kanasar and Khetusar, in Jodhpur district and Madasar and Awai, in Jaisalmer district for their personal experiences in course of malaria paroxysm. Of these, 4.5% women were pregnant, 3.2% were lactating while 2% were pregnant with lactating, Nearly 53% women were in the 15-29 years of age group, 73% were illiterate and 80% belonged to low socio-economic status. A large number of pregnant women (79.3%) reported of having fever due to malaria. Only sixteen percent women perceived that malaria spreads by mosquitoes but did not differentiate the vector within the species. Half of the respondents had pointed out about two types of malaria, namely normal malaria and brain fever malaria, which are known as Plasmodium vivex and P.falciparum malaria. Two third of the respondents were not satisfied with the health care delivery system, availability of drugs and behaviour of the health workers. About 95% of pregnant women complained that no major relief in domestic chores came forward during the period of their suffering with malarial paroxysms. More than three-fourths of the lactating mothers acknowledged no special food was taken to develop strength during or after malaria fever. As to anti-mosquito measures, almost all examined women informed that only homely available cow dung cakes for smoke and the oil for smearing on body were employed. The study suggests that an extensive health education is required in the area to control malaria and its vectors in the historically hypoendemic areas of the Thar Desert, currently transformed into hyperendimic areas due to invasion of P. falciparum during last one decade.
J-19 Yadav, SP, Tyagi, BK, Dam, PK and Ramnath, T. On some socio-economic aspects of inhabitants of multistory buildings of Jodhpur city. Proc., UGC National Seminar on Multi storey buildings of growing towns problems and remedies, Jodhpur. 1999, 53-58.
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The Sun city Jodhpur is the gate of Thar Desert of Western part of Rajasthan and second largest city of the state providing accommodation to approximately seven lakhs of people, of which significant proportion of people hails from other states of India, Over the years, the overgrowth of population, ever-increasing economic constraints and cumulative scarcity of land for housing with basic amenities within the Municipality limits of the city have necessitated the development of multistoried building in the Jodhpur city. The concept of multistoried buildings in Jodhpur city started particularly after the year 1990. This probably satisfies the long cherished desire of middle class people to live in close vicinity of city area. The apartments basically provide two-to-three bedroom flats, with approximately 800-1600 sq. ft. living area, Cost of these flats ranges between Rs.12-18 lakhs, depending on the locality, type of construction and the floor area available for living. The residents of these multistoried apartments are expected to have different socio-economic and health patterns which will be discussed in great detail. Residents from each floor in the three multistoried buildings of jodhpur city were surveyed with a focus to assess the impact of the availability of various basic amenities like distance need to be covered to avail of any health facilities during illness, food and nutrition, greenery and kitchen garden within the building premises, laundry, stalls for vegetables/ other day-to-day essential articles, in particular for geriatric residents and whether arrangements of lift facilities for cardiac patients are extended or not, and so on.
J-20 Dam, PK, Ramnath, T, Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. Use of ethnomedicinal practices in the Thar Desert, North Western, India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 2000, 24: 303-18.
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Traditional practices were investigated in 338 households of 11 villages in the Thar Desert, Western India. Ethnomedicinal use for 16 selected health problems was found to be 58.4% which varied significantly amongst the villages with (55.5%) or without (63.0%) health facilities. While for fever about 87% favour allopathic treatment, in the case of cough with headache, pain in bone joints almost 100% relied on ethnomedicine. Thus, a disease-wise preference for the use of ethno medicine was seen. Locally available flora constituted an integeral part of ethnomedicine which however differed in the villages with or without health facilities. More than 90% reported being satisfied with the use of ethnomedicine.
J-21 Mathur, ML, Yadav, SP and Tyagi, BK. A Study of an Epidemic of Acute Respiratory Disease in Jaipur town. J. Postgrad. Med., 2000. 46: 88-90.
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AIM: To detect an association between the sudden epidemic with respiratory symptoms, and fogging with dichlorovos in Jaipur town and to find out probable mechanism of causation of the epidemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this community based study of the epidemic, house to house survey of households selected using systematic random sampling was carried out. The incidence in the exposed and unexposed population, the relative risk and attributable risk were calculated. RESULTS: The incidence of cases was high (58.9%) in subjects present on roads at the time of fogging as compared to in those who were inside rooms of the houses (5.4%) and in those who were not in the locality at that time (1.8%) [Relative Risk (RR)=32.7 and Attributable Risk (AR)=96.9%]. CONCLUSION: High RR and AR in the present epidemic indicate strong association between fogging and occurrence of symptoms. In absence of signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning it suggests that this could have been due to an inappropriate solvent or defective functioning of fog generator, leading to generation of an unusual dark fog that might have irritated eyes and respiratory tract of exposed residents.
J-22 Singh, Karam V and Bansal, SK. Current insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis, against few conventional and more potent insecticides in some desert and non-desert parts of Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2001, 40: 79-84.
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Studies on the current insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus against few conventional insecticides (DDT & dieldrin) and more potent ones (malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin) were carried-out in 3 desert (Barmer, Jodhpur & Pali) and 3 non-desert districts (Ajmer, Kota & Udaipur) in Rajasthan. The results revealed that this species was no longer susceptible to any of the tested insecticides. In desert districts the species exhibited resistance to DDT, dieldrin and malathion and intermediate resistance to fenitrothion, propoxur and permethrin, however, in non-desert districts, the species, besides resistance to DDT, dieldrin and malathion, had also developed resistance to propoxur, but it exhibited intermediate resistance to fenitrothion and permethrin.
J-23 Bansal, SK and Singh, Karam V. Toxicological evaluation of some organophosphorus compounds against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in Bikaner district, Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone, 2002, 41: 169-73.
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Effects of six organophosphorus compounds, viz. Malathion, Fenitrothion, Fenthion, dichlorvos, temephos and chlorpyrifos were evaluated on larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. Different diagnostic concentrations supplied by WHO were used and percent mortalities determined. LC50 values, as determined by probit analysis, were 1.273, 0.1091, 0.0947, 0.0458, 0.0076 and 0.0038 mg/l, respectively. Chlorpyrifos and temephos were the most toxic where 100% mortality was observed while fenitrothion, fenthion and dichlorvos were found in between these two extremes. Regression coefficient (slope), fiducial limits to LC50 and LC95 and heterogeneity of the response (x2) were calculated for each insecticide.
J-24 Agrawal, RP, Singh, G, Nayak, KC, Kochar, DK, Sharma, RC, Beniwal, R, Rastogi, P and Gupta, R. Prevalence of diabetes in camel-milk consuming Raica Rural community of north-west Rajasthan. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Countries, 2004, 24: 109-14.
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Anecdotal reports suggest that camel-milk consumption is associated with low prevalence of diabetes. To determine prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in habitually camel-milk consuming Raica community in north-western Rajasthan, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using stratified sampling of a representative Raica community subjects consuming camel milk, and Raica community and non-Raica community subjects not consuming camel milk.We used 75 gm oral glucose-load tolerance test to determine the glucose intolerance. The fasting as well as post-glucose load glucose levels were significantly lower in Raica community subjects as compared to the non-Raica community subjects in the same region (fasting 89.015.0 vs. 96.220.3 mg/dl; post-glucose 120.217.5 vs 131.230.2 mg/dl; p<0.001). In camel-milk consuming Raica subjects the age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes (0.0%), impaired fasting glucose (3.2%), and impaired fasting glucose (8.6%) was significantly lower than other milk consuming Raica subjects (4.6%, 7.8%), and 20.6%) and non-Raica subjects (7.5%, 13.4% and 15.1%) respectively (p<0.01). The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance as well diabetes is also in the rural Raica community subjects of north-west Rajasthan. The prevalence of both is the lowest in camel-milk consuming Raica community subjects.
J-25 Dewan, A, Bhatnagar, VK, Mathur, ML, Chakma, T, Kashyap, R, Sadhu, HG, Sinha, SN and Saiyed, HN. Repeated Episodes of Endosulfan Poisoning. J. Toxicol-Clin. Toxic., 2004, 42; 363-69.
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INTRODUCTION: A number of families in a rural area of Jabalpur District (Madhya Pradesh), India, were affected by repeated episodes of convulsive illness over a period of three weeks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause of the illness. METHODS: The investigation included a house-to-house survey, interviews of affected families, discussions with treating physicians, and examination of hospital records. Endosulfan poisoning was suspected as many villagers were using empty pesticide containers for food storage. To confirm this, our team collected blood and food samples, which were transported to the laboratory and analyzed with GC-ECD. RESULTS: Thirty-six persons of all age groups had illness of varying severity over a period of three weeks. In the first week, due to superstitions and lack of treatment, three children died. In the second week, symptomatic treatment of affected persons in a district hospital led to recovery but recurrence of convulsive episodes occurred after they return home. In the third week, 10 people were again hospitalized in a teaching hospital. Investigations carried out in this hospital ruled out infective etiology but no facilities were available for chemical analysis. All persons responded to symptomatic treatment. The blood and food samples analyzed by our team showed presence of endosulfan which was confirmed by GCMS. One of the food items (Laddu) prepared from wheat flour was found to contain 676 ppm of alpha-endosulfan. CONCLUSIONS: Contamination of wheat grains or flour with endosulfan and its consumption over a period of time was the most likely cause of repeated episodes of convulsions, but the exact reason for this contamination could not be determined. This report highlights the unsafe disposal of pesticide containers by illiterate farm workers, superstitions leading to delay in treatment, and susceptibility of children to endosulfan.
J-26 Sachdev, R, Haldiya, KR and Dixit, AK. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Kumhar Community of Western Rajasthan. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2005, 53: 101-03.
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A cross-sectional study or rural community of Kumhars of Bikaner district of Western Rajasthan was conducted to know the current magnitude of the occurrence of Acute Intermittent Porphyria. Three hundred fifty one households comprising of 2385 Kumhar individuals were approached. Besides recording other information and examination details, their urine samples were subjected to Watson-Schwartz Test. In all, 1237 subjects distributed among 20 randomly selected villages of Bikaner district could be studied. The prevalence of AIP was estimated to be 1.16%. (CI=0.0120.0005), showing higher prevalence than the earlier reported studies. The cases exhibited varied symptomatology. Overall preponderance was in favour of females (2:1) and majority (38.9%) of cases belonged to 20-29 years of age. Average age of manifestation was 24.54.8 years. A follow up was also done to know the disease consequences, if any. The study finds a higher prevalence of the disease and as such warrants a need for generating awareness among the families of cases in the vulnerable caste group in the study area for early detection and better management of the disease.
J-27 Dixit, AK, Anand, PK and Sharma, RC. A study of district level development factors influencing infant mortality rate and life expectancy in the Indian Thar Desert. Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health, 2006, 5: 42-45.
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This study used a multiple regression analysis to examine socio-economic characteristics, physical amenities and health care at a district level and attempted to identify factors that specifically influence infant mortality rates (IMR) and life expectancy (LE) in the Indian Thar Desert. Twelve explanatory variables were considered. The criteria for inclusion of the variables in the regression model, out of those considered, was to include those for which the desert to non-desert ratio of square of their correlation coefficient (r2%) with IMR and LE exceeded one. In addition, the human poverty index was included. The step down technique retained 6 variables in the regression model in the case of IMR and 4 in the case of LE. R2% was 84% with retained variables to explain variation in IMR and LE in desert and quite low in non-desert. The number of health institutions and percentage of households visited by a health worker in the last 3 months, ranked top in influencing IMR and LE. The attributable regression suggests that the little increase (5%) in health institutions (health sub centres at village level) and doubling the number of health workers visiting households can better account for IMR and LE in the desert.
J-28 Purohit, SD, Purohit, V and Mathur, ML. A Clinical scoring system as useful as FNAC in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in HIV positive patients. Curr. HIV Res,. 2006, 4: 459-62.
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Among HIV positive patients, Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or biopsy for diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenopathy is often avoided due to an unspoken stigma. Earlier, we had developed a clinical scoring scale for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN), which had 88% sensitivity and detected no false positives. In the present study, we attempted to develop similar scale that could assist in diagnosing TBLN in AIDS. All 42 HIV positive patients of adenitis attending Ramdeo Hospital and Research Centre, Jodhpur between August 200 I and December 2004 were studied. History of past tuberculosis, age, history of rapid weight loss, site, size, consistency and the presence of matting and sinus formation of enlarged lymph nodes, result of tuberculin test, sputum smear and findings in chest radiograph were compared between patients diagnosed as TBLN and those showing non-tuberculous lymphadenitis (Non-TBLN) on cytopathological examination of material obtained by fine needle aspiration. Based on the results, clinical scores from zero to two were assigned to different clinical features. The total clinical score was then calculated for each patient. A total clinical score of five or more included all TBLN cases and only 10.5% false positives. This scoring system can be used in remote peripheral areas which do not have the facility for biopsy or FNAC.
K. Bio-Statistics
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K-1 Dixit, AK, Agarwal, SK and Singh, P. Impact of Agricultural Development on Nutrition: A Perspective Study in Jodhpur and Jaipur District. J. Ind. Soc. Agric. Statistics, 1997, 50: 29-36.
Abstract
K-2 Misra, KN and Lakshminarayana, J. A generalized compound inflated Binomial distribution. Jammu Stat. Reviews, Jammu University, Jammu Tawi. 1998, 47-52.
Abstract
K-3 Dixit, AK and Agarwal, SK. Expenditure pattern in desert, reprinted from Statistical Methods and Application in Biology and Medicine. Proc. First Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 1999, 229-35.
Abstract
K-4 Lakshminarayana, J and Misra, KN. A generalized inflated compound Binomial distribution. Proc. First Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 1999, 123-28.
Abstract
K-5 Dixit, AK, Agarwal, SK and Singh, P. Agricultural, Development and Calorie Consumption in Rajasthan: An Analysis through Econometric Modeling. Annals of Arid Zone, 2000, 39: 465-470.
Abstract
K-6 Lakshminarayana, J and Misra, KN. A generalized compound inflated Poisson distribution. Proc. Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 2001.
Abstract
Abstracts
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K-1 Dixit, AK, Agarwal, SK and Singh, P. Impact of Agricultural Development on Nutrition: A Perspective Study in Jodhpur and Jaipur District. J. Ind. Soc. Agric. Statistics, 1997, 50: 29-36.
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The impact of agricultural development on malnutrition (Calorie inadequacy) in desert is studied. For this purpose, the distributions of calorie-consumption per consumer unit (C.U.) in the two districts of Rajasthan namely Jodhpur (with inadequate agricultural development) and Jaipur (with adequate agricultural development) are analyzed. Attempts are also made to see the intra and inter various in calorie intake among the income classes of the agricultural community. The agricultural developmental strategies are also examined in the light of the standard of its appraisal. It has been noted that despite of satisfactory agricultural development in case of Jaipur, the malnutrition situation in the district goes parallel to that of Jodhpur.
K-2 Misra, KN and Lakshminarayana, J. A generalized compound inflated Binomial distribution. Jammu Stat. Reviews, Jammu University, Jammu Tawi. 1998, 47-52.
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A generalized inflated binomial distribution compounded with generalized beta distribution has been defined. Some interesting special cases have been deduced. Procedures for finding out the moments have been outlined.
K-3 Dixit, AK and Agarwal, SK. Expenditure pattern in desert, reprinted from Statistical Methods and Application in Biology and Medicine. Proc. First Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 1999, 229-235.
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The study analyses the utilization of income generation through agricultural development on food expenditure agricultural investments and social expenditures in a desert district-Jodhpur by comparing the situation with Jaipur a district with adequate agricultural development so as to reveal the agriculture nutritional linkage in desert. The analysis sounds an alarm, as it appears that the agriculture development in the desert has led to considerable enhanced investment on agriculture increasing thereby the debt-pressure and making less effective the improvement of mal-nutritional problem in the community through agricultural development.
K-4 Lakshminarayana, J and Misra, KN. A generalized inflated compound Binomial distribution. Proc. First Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 1999, 123-28.
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A generalized compound inflated binomial probability distribution, compounded with transformed gamma distribution has been defined incorporating the special function technique as introduced by Mathai & Saxena (1971, 1973). George & Mathai (1975), and Saxena & Misra (1991). The particular cases of this distribution may find useful application in bio-medical studies provided the parameters become estimable. Some interesting special cases have been deduced. Its application in the field of bio-medical sciences has also bee elucidated.
K-5 Dixit, AK, Agarwal, SK and Singh, P. Agricultural, Development and Calorie Consumption in Rajasthan: An Analysis through Econometric Modeling. Annals of Arid Zone, 2000, 39: 465-470.
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The agricultural development is linked with calorie-consumption as tit makes available the subsistence production and generates income to buy sufficient food. The calorie consumption was studied in two districts, Jodhpur (with inadequate agricultural development) and Jaipur (with adequate agricultural development). Using econometric models it is found that marginal propensity to obtain a calorie intake in relation to household income is only 0.0893 in case of Jodhpur and tends to be negative in case of Jodhpur with agricultural development. However, raising subsistence production by one unit, the calorie intake is almost doubled in Jodhpur. The local food preferences are of paramount importance here. The results suggest that in order to check calorie-inadequacy in desert population through agricultural development, the strategies should be to promote more the subsistence production of local calorie-rich crops.
K-6 Lakshminarayana, J and Misra, KN. A generalized compound inflated Poisson distribution. Proc. Jt. Conf. ISMS and IBSIR, 2001.
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The generalized Poisson distribution has been introduced assuming that l varies according to probability law as defied by Saxena and Misra (1991 a) with the help of special function. The generalized compound Poisson distribution inflated in the rth cell has been defined incorporating the generalized hypergeometric function. Several interesting special cases with useful applications have been mentioned. The generalization has been worked out by taking matrix argument. The modified Poisson distribution with special cases have been deduced with MGF, characteristic function etc., worked out in usual manner. These have usefull applications in bio-medical sciences, fertility and similar other situations provided the parameters estimable, which can be tried with latest computer technology.